Neurochemistry

Acetylcholine 1. Pontomesencephalic Tegmentum 2. Basal Forebrain (Nucleus Basalis of Meynert) and Medial Septum Norepinephrine 1. Locus Ceruleus in pons 2. Lateral Tegmentum of pons 3. Lateral/ventrolateral tegmentum of medulla Serotonin 1. Raphe nucleus of brainstem 2. Rostral Raphe: dorsal raphe-> ascending projections 3. Caudal Raphe: Raphe pallidus and raphe Read more…

PCOL Exam 2: Neurotransmission & Basic Neurochemistry

GABA meaning Gamma amino-butyric acid Major inhibitory transmitter in brain GABA synthesis Enzyme=glutamic acid decarboxylase COOH removed from glutamic acid to make GABA GABA inactivation Reuptake=major means of inactivation Broken down by GABA-transaminase Catabolism blocked by gamma vinyl GABA GABA receptor subtypes 2 receptor subtypes A=ligand-gated ion channel B=GPCR GABA-A Read more…

Neurochemistry

Synaptic cleft by Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) What degrades Acetylcholine and where? Acetylcholine What is the most widespread neurotransmitter in the nervous system? -Motor neurons of spinal cord to innervate muscle of body -Motor neurons of cranial nerves to innervate muscles of head/neck What nerves use Acetylcholine? -Autoimmune disorder, antibodies block AChR Read more…

Neurochemistry!

Acetylcholine MADE FROM: Dietary choline Acetylcholine MECHANISM: Excitatory & Inhibitory Acetylcholine LOCATION: Autonomic Nervous System Motor Neurons CNS Acetylcholine FUNCTION: Visceral function Movement Memory Acetylcholine DISORDER: Myasthenia gravis Alzheimer’s Disease (too little ACh) –> Plaques & Tangles! Beta-amyloid Plaques Neurofibrillary Tangles Glutamate MADE FROM: Amino Acid Glutamate MECHANISM: Excitatory Glutamate Read more…

Neuro Chemistry

neurochemistry focuses on the basic chemical composition and processes of the nervous system neuropharmacology is the study of compounds that selectively affect the nervous system EP or adrenaline chemical messenger that acts as a hormone to mobilize the body for fight or flight during times of stress and as a Read more…

Neurochemistry I

Three Characteristics of Neurotransmitters Stored in Presynaptic Vesicles Released in Ca²⁺-dependent manner Capable of interacting with a membrane-bound receptor to produce an effect Small Molecule Nuerotransmitters Acetylcholine, Amino Acids and Amino Acid Derivatives Two Types of NT’s and EM Appearance SMALL MOLECULE – Appear as clear vesicles PEPTIDE – Appear Read more…

Neurochemistry on behaviour

Neurotransmitter Is a chemical released from a neurone, it travels across the synapses and is received by another neurone Excitatory Trigger the receiving neurone to send an impulse and stimulate the brain Excitatory effects Effect our behaviour that is associated with motivation, high levels of dopamine are associated with schizophrenia Read more…

Part 3 : Neurochemistry

Neurochemistry Any chemical that are in the brain. Ex) Myeline, cell membrane, etc. Neurotransmitter A chemical molecules that transmits messages between neurons. Otto Loewi & Sir Henry Dale Two scientists who won the Nobel prize in 1936 for discovering the first neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Frog Heart Experiment An experiment conducted by Read more…

Neurochemistry Terms

what is neuroplasticity the brain’s ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between dendrites; changes in the spine/thorn morphology of the dendrites are associated with learning and memory. What is the function of the hypothallamus? Responsible for regulating basic biological needs: hunger, thirst, temperature control what is the function Read more…

Neurochemical Transmission

Parts of the standard neuron Inputs, dendrites, soma, myelinated axon, nodes, terminal, synapse Where are the neurotransmitters held? In the synaptic terminal What is exocytosis dependent on and why? Ca2+ concentration – calcium ions cause vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane Mechanism of exocytosis Vesicles dock with specialized proteins Read more…

neurochemistry

acetylcholine synthesized from DIETARY choline, foods high in choline are eggs, meats, beans, green veggies motor neurons of cranial nerves do what.. innervate muscles of the head and neck motor neurons of the spinal nerves do what.. innervate muscle of the body myasthenia gravis autoimmune disorder, causes muscle weakness when Read more…

ANPS EXAM 3- Neurochemistry

Acetylcholine (ACh) Most widespread Neurotransmitter in nervous system Degraded in synaptic cleft From dietary choline Made by motor neurons (think about muscle weakness) Role in alertness/memory (think Alzheimer’s) What is Myasthenia gravis Autoimmune destruction of ACh receptors (block AChr) muscle weakness AChR blockers can also cause: Paralysis Alzheimer’s disease death Read more…

drugs alter brain neurochemistry

psychoactive drugs mind-altering substances that people typically take for recreational purposes and change the brain’s neurochemistry either by mimicking neurotransmitters or changing the activity of a neurotransmitter system it imitates or activates stimulants drugs that increase behavioral and mental activity stimulate central nervous system activate sympathetic nervous system(heart rate) activate Read more…

Brain neurochemistry on addiction.

Khaled (2009) – Long term smoking had adverse effects on mood. – Brain’s neurochemistry starts to alter. – Depression – Luke and Tash: In China, its more on women. Di Franza (2008) – Brain quickly synthesise to nicotine. – Neutral changes, 25%

Neurochemistry

categories of neurochemicals -neurotransmitter (released by neurons) -neuromodulator (released by neurons) -neuropeptide (released by neurons) -neurohormone (released by neurons) -hormone Ionotropic transmitter-gated ion channels metabotropic G-protein coupled receptors -2nd messenger system termination of nt effect -reuptake -enzymatic deactivation -diffusion (rarely) ACh -acetylcholine -primary NT secreted by output CNS cells -pons: Read more…

Neurochemistry & Neuropharmacology

Ionotropic Receptor -Type of receptor that, when stimulated, immediately opens an ion channel Ionotropic Receptor -Type of receptor that is associated with a ligand-activated ion channel Metabotropic Receptor -Type of receptor that, when stimulated, does not immediately open an ion channel Metabotropic Receptor -Type of receptor that is associated with Read more…

Neurochemistry I

Three Characteristics of Neurotransmitters -Stored in Presynaptic Vesicles -Released in Ca²⁺-dependent manner -Capable of interacting with a membrane-bound receptor to produce an effect Additionally, a substance that meets these criteria and also interacts with the receptors to produce the same physiological effect as activations of presynaptic axons is considered to Read more…