PCOL Exam 2: Neurotransmission & Basic Neurochemistry

GABA meaning Gamma amino-butyric acid Major inhibitory transmitter in brain GABA synthesis Enzyme=glutamic acid decarboxylase COOH removed from glutamic acid to make GABA GABA inactivation Reuptake=major means of inactivation Broken down by GABA-transaminase Catabolism blocked by gamma vinyl GABA GABA receptor subtypes 2 receptor subtypes A=ligand-gated ion channel B=GPCR GABA-A Read more…

Neurochemistry

Synaptic cleft by Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) What degrades Acetylcholine and where? Acetylcholine What is the most widespread neurotransmitter in the nervous system? -Motor neurons of spinal cord to innervate muscle of body -Motor neurons of cranial nerves to innervate muscles of head/neck What nerves use Acetylcholine? -Autoimmune disorder, antibodies block AChR Read more…

Neurochemistry!

Acetylcholine MADE FROM: Dietary choline Acetylcholine MECHANISM: Excitatory & Inhibitory Acetylcholine LOCATION: Autonomic Nervous System Motor Neurons CNS Acetylcholine FUNCTION: Visceral function Movement Memory Acetylcholine DISORDER: Myasthenia gravis Alzheimer’s Disease (too little ACh) –> Plaques & Tangles! Beta-amyloid Plaques Neurofibrillary Tangles Glutamate MADE FROM: Amino Acid Glutamate MECHANISM: Excitatory Glutamate Read more…

Neuro Chemistry

neurochemistry focuses on the basic chemical composition and processes of the nervous system neuropharmacology is the study of compounds that selectively affect the nervous system EP or adrenaline chemical messenger that acts as a hormone to mobilize the body for fight or flight during times of stress and as a Read more…

Neurochemistry

Acetylcholine 1. Pontomesencephalic Tegmentum 2. Basal Forebrain (Nucleus Basalis of Meynert) and Medial Septum Norepinephrine 1. Locus Ceruleus in pons 2. Lateral Tegmentum of pons 3. Lateral/ventrolateral tegmentum of medulla Serotonin 1. Raphe nucleus of brainstem 2. Rostral Raphe: dorsal raphe-> ascending projections 3. Caudal Raphe: Raphe pallidus and raphe Read more…

Brain neurochemistry on addiction.

Khaled (2009) – Long term smoking had adverse effects on mood. – Brain’s neurochemistry starts to alter. – Depression – Luke and Tash: In China, its more on women. Di Franza (2008) – Brain quickly synthesise to nicotine. – Neutral changes, 25%

Neurochemistry

categories of neurochemicals -neurotransmitter (released by neurons) -neuromodulator (released by neurons) -neuropeptide (released by neurons) -neurohormone (released by neurons) -hormone Ionotropic transmitter-gated ion channels metabotropic G-protein coupled receptors -2nd messenger system termination of nt effect -reuptake -enzymatic deactivation -diffusion (rarely) ACh -acetylcholine -primary NT secreted by output CNS cells -pons: Read more…

Neurochemistry & Neuropharmacology

Ionotropic Receptor -Type of receptor that, when stimulated, immediately opens an ion channel Ionotropic Receptor -Type of receptor that is associated with a ligand-activated ion channel Metabotropic Receptor -Type of receptor that, when stimulated, does not immediately open an ion channel Metabotropic Receptor -Type of receptor that is associated with Read more…

Neurochemistry I

Three Characteristics of Neurotransmitters -Stored in Presynaptic Vesicles -Released in Ca²⁺-dependent manner -Capable of interacting with a membrane-bound receptor to produce an effect Additionally, a substance that meets these criteria and also interacts with the receptors to produce the same physiological effect as activations of presynaptic axons is considered to Read more…

ANPS EXAM 3: NEUROCHEMISTRY

Two types of neurotransmitters that are classified as excitatory glutamate aspartate two types of neurotransmitters that are classified as inhibitory glycine GABA two types of neurotransmitters that are classified as a peptide neurotransmitter substance P endorphins three neurotransmitters that are classified as a catecholamine dopamine epinephrine norepinephrine neurotransmitter made primarily Read more…

Neurochemistry

Glutamate and aspartate Most common excitatory transmitters in the brain. Both appear to bind to the same receptors, and almost all study has focused on the actions of glutamate. There are several major classes of glutamate receptors, some of which are metabotropic (modulatory) while three of which are ionotropic, ligand-gated Read more…

Chapter 4: Neurochemistry

Neurochemistry Focuses on the basic chemical composition and processes of the nervous system Neuropharmacology The study of compounds that selectively affect the nervous system Frog heart experiment Otto Loewi. Showed the role of the vagus nerve and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in slowing heart rate. Ach was the first neurotransmitter discovered Read more…

Basic Neurochemistry

neurotransmitter characteristics 1) vesicle storage 2) Ca dependent release 3) interaction with postsynaptic target *interaction with target should illicit uniform response neuromodulator almost meets all of criteria of neurotransmitter but some discrepancy have slow and long lasting effects forming vesicle in presynaptic terminal ex. choline taken in through membrane, form Read more…

Neurochemistry

Dendrites – Multiple per cell forming arbors, non/spiny; clustered near soma; highly plastic – Organise, respond, synthesise inputs to neuron DNA nucleus contains the DNA (DNA the same in every nucleus).. Chromatin determines cell expression ie. what gene is what Process of DNA –> protein DNA transcribed to mRNA mRNA Read more…

Neurochemistry Concepts

what are the three protective features of the brain? the blood brain barrier, the bony skull, and the cerebral spinal fluid, which provides cushioning for the brain what is an example of a leak channel potassium leak channels, which allow potassium out of the cell with the concentration gradient and Read more…

neurochemistry

synthesis of Ach Acetyl CoA + choline via choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) Elimination of Ach via acetylcholinesterase to choline and acetate (choline is re-used) synthesis of dopamine tyrosine –> DOPA via tyrosine hydroxylase –> dopamine by decarbosylase elimination of dopamine via transport into presynaptic element and then into the surrounding glial Read more…