Neurotransmission & Neurochemistry

What is a synapse? specialized junctions where neuronal axons contact another neuron or cell type Type I synapse -excitatory -axodendritic -round presynaptic vesicles -presynaptic specialization -large active zone -wide cleft -large postsynaptic density Type II synapse -inhibitory -axoaxonic -flat presynaptic vesicles -few presynaptic specializations -small active zone -narrow cleft -non-uniform Read more…

Neurochemistry Ch. 6

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Enzyme in the synaptic cleft that clears the cleft of acetylcholine released by the presynaptic cell. AChE hydrolyzes ACh into acetate and choline; the choline is then transported back into nerve terminals, where it is used to resynthesizes ACh Biogenic Amines Category of small-molecule neurotransmitters; includes the catecholamines Read more…

Neurochemistry of Behavior: The Sleep-Wake Cycle

Encephalitis lesions affecting the sleep-wake cycle Shown here is a figure from a paper written by the neurologist Constantin Von Economo. Anterior hypothalamus lesions resulted in insomnia. Posterior hypothalamus lesions resulted in sleepiness The arrow indicates lesions resulting in narcolepsy. These observations lead to hypothesis of a “sleep center” in Read more…

103 lecture 7- neurochemistry of pain

Spinal Chemical Nociceptive (Pain Sensation) Circuits Substance P Cholecystokinin Bradykinin Glutamate nociceptive pain arising from the stimulation of nerve cells Substance P and pain primary nociceptive afferent in dorsal horn -Primary “nociceptive” neurochemical found in dorsal horn afferents. -Saporin studies demonstrate increased trafficking during pain. -Substance P effects blocked by Read more…

Biopsychology Lecture 1

Four Major Themes 1. Thinking Creatively about Biopsychology 2. Clinical Applications 3. The Evolutionary Perspective 4. Neuroplasticity = the brain is PLASTIC, not static Biopsychology The scientific study of the biology of behaviour – Emerged as a discipline in the 1940s – HOW the brain interacts with the environment to Read more…