APUSH Chapter 12

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Spectral Classes
Spectral Classes
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Parallax Method
Can only be used < ~100 parsecs because the parallax angle would be too small to be measured.
Parallax Angle
Parallax Angle
Half of the angle of separation.
Apparent Magnitude
Apparent Brightness observed from Earth.
Absolute Magnitude
Apparent Brightness observed from 10pc.
Magnitude Scale
The smaller the magnitude, the brighter the star
Pattern of stars that are not close together.
Stellar Cluster
Groups of stars bound by gravity.
Main Sequence
90% of stars. Undergo fusion causing pressure that prevents the star from collapsing under the force of gravity.
Red Giants
Cool, big, Luminosity III (~4 to 5)
Super Giants
Cool, big, Luminosity I (~5 to 6)
White Dwarfs
Hot, small, Luminosity VII (~-2 to -3)
The Big Bang Model
Space and time originated from a single point in a large explosion
Cosmic Background Radiation
Evidence for the Big Bang. Temperature was very high and as the universe expanded it cooled down. The wavelength of the CMB corresponds to a temperature consistent with this cooling down.
Red Shift
Evidence for the Big Bang. Indicates that the universe is expanding.
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