study guide for exam 1 human anatomy & physiology

anatomy
study of body structure
integumentary, skeletal & muscular
the 3 body systems that offer protection, support & movement
physiology
the study of how the body functions
metabolism
all the life-sustaining reactions that occur within the body systems together make up
anabolism
simple compounds are built into more complex(energy-required building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances)
catabolism
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy (substances are broken down into building blocks)
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy
pathology
the branch of medical science that studies the causes and effects of diseases
cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organs
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
organ system
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
homeostasis
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
mediastinum
open space between the lungs
muscular system
includes smooth, cardiac & skeletal muscle tissues, gives support, structure, and movement throughout the body
nervous system
The body system organized into the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, that send and receive messages and integrate the body’s activities.
endocrine system
the system of glands that produce secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity such as growth, nutrient utilization, & reproduction
cardiovascular system
the heart & blood vessels make up the system involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
lymphatic system
these vessels assist in circulation by returning fluids from tissues to blood. The tonsils & thymus gland play a role in immunity, protecting from disease. This system also aids in the absorption of dietary fats
respiratory system
The organ system responsible for the intake of oxygen and diffusion of that gas into the blood and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the body. Important structures of the system are the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. Alveoli in the lungs are the location of gas exchange with the blood. The movement of the muscular diaphragm allows the lungs to inhale and exhale.
digestive system
provides the body with nutrients, water, and electrolytes essential for health. These organs serve to ingest, digest, and absorb food and eliminate the remains (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine, liver, gallbladder, & pancreas)
urinary system
consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance
reproductive system
organs and tissues involved in the production and maturation of gametes and in their union and subsequent development as offspring
the difference between negative & positive feedback
negative feedback systems reverses a condition to bring it back to a norm, positive feedback intensifies a response
the difference between intracellular and extracellular fluid
extracellular fluid includes all body fluids outside the cells (bathes the cells, carries nutrients to & from cells & transports nutrients into and out of cells). Intracellular fluid is contained within the cells
superior
above or in a higher position
inferior
below or lower
anterior or ventral
toward belly surface or front of body
medial
nearer to midline of body, dividing into left & right
lateral
away from midline, toward the side
proximal
nearer to the origin of a structure
distal
farther from the origin
frontal or coronal plane
divides the body into anterior or ventral (front) and posterior or dorsal (back) sections
sagittal plane
a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
midsagittal plane
a cut exactly down the midline of body
transverse plane
horizontal division of the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
dorsal cavity
body cavity that is located toward the back part of the body; divided into the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity
ventral cavity
cavity along the anterior side of the body made of the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity
heart, lungs & large blood vessels that join the heart
the organs of the thoracic cavity
mediastinum
open space between the lungs
diaphragm
a muscle used in breathing that separates the thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
abdominal & pelvic cavities
the 2 regions that the abdominopelvic cavity is subdivided
the organs in the abdominal cavity
stomach, most of the intestine, the liver, gallbladder, pancreas & spleen
the organs of the pelvic cavity
urinary bladder, rectum & internal parts of the reproductive system
the 3 central regions, from superior to inferior
epigastric region (inferior to breastbone),
umbilical region (around the naval),&
hypogastric region (most inferior of all midline)
the regions on the right & left, from superior to inferior
left & right hypochondriac regions (inferior to ribs),
left & right lumbar regions (level – lumbar of spine), &
left & right iliac or inguinal region
the 4 quadrants of the abdomen
right & left upper quadrant
right & left lower quadrant
cephalic
head
parietal
crown
cranial
skull
facial
face
oral
mouth
occipital
base of skull
cervical
neck
brachial
arm
axillary
armpit
antecubital
inside elbow
manual
hand
palmar
palm
mammary
breast
thoracic
chest
umbilical
naval
caudal
tail
femoral
thigh
patellar
knee cap
popliteal
back of knee
pedal
foot
plantar
sole of foot
5 ml
1 tsp is how many ml?
15 ml
1 tbs is how many ml?
1 liter
1000 ml is how many liters?
1 kg
2.2 lbs is how many kg?
37 c
98.6 f is how much in c?
nervous & endocrine
the 2 body systems for coordination & control
cardiovascular & lymphatic
the 2 body systems for circulation
respiratory, digestive & urinary
the 3 body systems for nutrition & fluid balance
reproductive
the body system for production of offspring
A) the structure of the stomach
which is the most suitable field of study for an anatomist?
A) the structure of the stomach
B) the mechanism of protein digestion,
C) stomach cancer,
D) anabolic reactions
B) cell, tissue, organ, system, organism
There are numerous levels of organization in the body. The correct order from simplest to most complex is
A) organ, tissue, cell, organism, system
B) cell, tissue, organ, system, organism
C) system, cell, organ, organism, tissue
D) cell, system, tissue, organ, organism
C) a rise in blood calcium levels stimulates release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels
Which example illustrates negative feedback?
A) decreased blood sugar stimulates release of a hormone that further decreases blood sugar
B) Decrease room temperature activates a thermostat, which further decreases heat output by a furnace
C) a rise in blood calcium levels stimulates release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels
D) a rise in estrogen levels stimulates production of a hormone that stimulates estrogen production.
A) skeletal
Which system is comprised of bones & joints?
A) skeletal
B) nervous
C) immune
D) muscular
A) anabolic reaction
A reaction in which simple compounds are assembled into more complex compounds is most accurately described as a
A) anabolic reaction
B) catabolic reaction
C) homeostatic reaction
D) metabolic reaction
C) a rise in blood calcium levels stimulate release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels
Which example illustrates negative feedback?
A) decreased blood sugar stimulates release of a hormone that further decreases blood sugar
B) decreased room temperature activates a thermostat, which further decreases heat output by a furnace
C) a rise in blood calcium levels stimulate release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels
D) a rise in estrogen levels stimulates production of a hormone that stimulates estrogen production
C) medial
Which term means closer to the body’s midline?
A) distal
B) lateral
C) medial
D) transverse
C) frontal plane
The plane that divides the body into anterior & posterior parts is the
A) sagittal plane
B) proximal plane
C) frontal plane
D) midsagittal plane
C) lung
Which organ is not in the abdominopelvic cavity?
A) gallbladder
B) liver
C) lung
D) small intestine
B) hypogastric region
Which abdominal region is most inferior & medial?
A) epigastric region
B) hypogastric region
C) inguinal region
D) umbilical region
B) femoral
Which anatomical adjective describes the anterior thigh?
A) crural
B) femoral
C) popliteal
D) sural
A) constant
The term -stasis is best defined as
A) constant
B) downward
C) upward
D) variable
oxygen
O is the symbol of this element
carbon
C is the symbol of this element
hydrogen
H is the symbol of this element
nitrogen
N is the symbol of this element
calcium
Ca is the symbol of this element
phosphorus
P is the symbol of this element
potassium
K is the symbol of this element
sulfur
S is the symbol of this element
sodium
Na is the symbol of this element
chloride
Cl is the symbol of this element
iron
Fe is the symbol of this element
oxygen (O)
the most abundant element in our bodies
elements
these are the building blocks of all matter, 92 occur in nature
oxygen (O)
this element participates in ATP production
carbon (C)
this element is the building block of organic compounds
hydrogen (H)
this element participates in acid-base balance
nitrogen (N)
this element is present in protein, DNA, RNA,and ATP
calcium (Ca)
this element builds bones & teeth
potassium (K) & sodium (Na)
these 2 elements are needed for nerve impulse conduction
potassium (K)
if this element increases, it could cause heart erthymias or death
sodium (Na)
element needed for nerve impulse conduction
chloride (Cl)
element found in stomach acid
iron (Fe)
element that carries oxygen in red blood cells
atoms
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.
protons
positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom
neutrons
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
electrons
Negatively charged particles that orbit around the nucleus of an atom
protons + neutrons
atomic weight of an element
(example: oxygen atomic weight = 16 b/c it has 8 protons & 8 neutrons in its nucleus)
atomic # of an element
the # of protons in the nucleus of atom=
energy levels
an atom’s electrons orbit at specific distances from the nucleus in regions called
2 electrons
the 1st energy level is the one closest to the nucleus & it holds how many electrons?
8 electrons
the 2nd energy can hold how many electrons?
chemical bonds
an atom will form what with other atoms to fill its outermost energy level
8 electrons
the more distant energy levels can hold more than 8 electrons, but how many make it stable?
by sharing or gaining electrons from 1 or more other atoms
if outer most energy level has more than 4 but less than its capacity of 8 – how does the atom complete this level?
loses those electrons to empty the level
if atom has fewer than 4 electrons what does the atom do?
B) oxygen
Which element makes up the greatest percentage of body weight?
A) nitrogen
B) oxygen
C) potassium
D) sodium
B) 26
The atomic # of iron is 26, how many protons does iron have?
A) 13
B) 26
C) 39
D) 52
C) nonpolar bond
What bond forms between 2 atoms that share their electrons equally?
A) hydrogen bond
B) ionic bond
C) nonpolar bond
D) polar bond
C) electrolyte
Which term best describes the sodium ion (Na+)?
A) anion
B) atom
C) electrolyte
D) element
D) O2
Which chemical is not a compound?
A) Co2
B) H2O
C) NaCl
D) O2
the importance of water
most abundant compound in body, critical in all physiologic processes, deficiency (dehydration) threatens health, universal solvent, stable liquid at ordinary temperatures & participates in body’s chemical reactions
D) solvent
Which term describes a substance that dissolves another substance?
A) mixture
B) solute
C) solution
D) solvent
D) water
Which substance is termed the universal solvent?
A)an acid
B) a base
C) carbon
D) water
dehydration
a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body’s normal electrolyte balance
the ph scale
This scale is a means to indicate the acidity or basicity of a solution. The scale ranges from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. Acids have a pH lower than 7 and bases have a pH higher than 7.
acidosis
body fluid pH below 7.35
alkalosis
body fluid pH above 7.45
B) a base
Which substance always accepts hydrogen ions?
A) an acid
B) a base
C) a buffer
D) a salt
A) an acid
Which substance always has a pH below 7?
A) an acid
B) a base
C) a buffer
D) a salt
C) a buffer
Which substance is most important in maintaining a relatively constant pH in body fluids?
A) an acid
B) a base
C) a buffer
D) a salt
C) isotope
A form of an element that differs in its atomic weight from other forms of that same element is a ———————.
A) compound
B) Ion
C) isotope
D) molecule
(H) hydrogen, (O) oxygen, (C) carbon & (N) nitrogen
the 4 elements that make up about 96% of the weight
organic compounds
the chemical compounds that characterize living things & all are built on the element carbon
carbohydrates, lipids & proteins
the 3 main types of organic compounds
monosaccharides (simple sugars)
the building blocks of carbohydrates
glucose
example of a monosaccharide that circulates in the blood as a cellular nutrient
disaccharide
2 simple sugars link together to form this, represented by sucrose, or table sugar
polysaccharides
glycogen; complex carbohydrates ( starch which is manufactured in plant cells)
glycogen
a storage form of glucose found in liver cells & skeletal muscle cells
carbohydrates
these in the form of starches & sugars are important dietary sources for energy
lipids
a class of organic compound that is not soluble in water, mainly found in fat
glycerin
simple fats made from glycerol
glucose
example of monosaccharide
sucrose & lactose
examples of disaccharide
glycogen & starch
examples of polysaccharide
triglycerides
simple fat composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids, insulates body, protects organs & stores energy
phospholipids
complex lipid containing phosphorus & is the main component of cell membranes
steroids
contain rings of carbon atoms & regulate body function
proteins
found in muscles, bones & connective tissue. Contains the element Nitrogen along with carbon, hydrogen & oxygen. These are composed of the building blocks called amino acids
enzymes
these are essential for metabolism & serve as catalysts
catalysts
these increase the speed of chemical reactions
A) carbon
Which element is the basis of organic chemistry?
A) carbon
B) hydrogen
C) nitrogen
D) oxygen
B) enzyme
Which organic compound catalyzes metabolic reactions?
A) carbohydrate
B) enzyme
C) lipid
D) nucleotide
D) nucleotide
Which organic compound is used to store genetic information?
A) carbohydrate
B) enzyme
C) lipid
D) nucleotide
B) enzyme
A substance that has a name ending in -ase is most likely a ?
A) carbohydrate
B) enzyme
C) lipid
D) nucleotide
cell
basic unit of life
cytology
the study of cells
prokaryote & eukaryote
two kinds of cells
prokaryote
single celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles, contain cell wall/ cell membrane & contain DNA & ribosomes (example: bacteria)
eukaryote
largest cells, multicellular, contains a nucleus, contain membrane bound organelles= most organisms are these
plasma membrane
the outer layer of the cell, composed mainly of lipids & proteins
plasma membrane
this encloses cell contents, regulates what enters & leaves cell, & participates in many cell activities (growth, reproduction & cell to cell interactions)
phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol & proteins
plasma membrane components
(tails) lipid ends of phospholipids (“water fearing” or hydrophobic)
the inner part of the membrane is made up these
(balls) phosphorus containing ends of phospholipids (“water loving” or hydrophilic)
the outer part of the membrane is made up of these
the 6 proteins in the plasma membrane
1) channels
2) transporters
3) receptors
4) enzymes
5) linkers
6) cell identity markers
channels
pores in membrane that allow passage of specific substances
transporters
shuttle substances across membrane
receptors
allow for attachment of substances to membrane; used for cell to cell signaling
enzymes
participate in chemical reactions at membrane surface
linkers
give structure to membrane & attach cells to other cells
cell identity markers
proteins unique to a person’s cells; important for immunity
membrane potential
the difference in electric charge on either side of the plasma membrane, caused by separation of positive & negative ions & proteins
membrane potential
this allows the plasma membrane to act as a battery, uses electrical energy to power membrane functions
nucleus
the largest of organelles, the control center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell’s genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell’s activities, within this is the nucleolus (dark area), where ribosomes are made, the nuclear membrane encloses its contents
nucleolus
small body in the nucleus:; composed of RNA, DNA & protein, makes ribosomes
ribosomes
organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
cytoplasm
material that fills the cell from nuclear membrane to plasma membrane, site of many cellular activities; consists of cytosol ( liquid part) & organelles
cytosol
the fluid portion of the cytoplasm, surrounds organelles
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
is part of the internal delivery system to move substances within cells, it is a folded membrane with tubes & passageways located between nuclear membrane & plasma membrane, some areas have smooth ER which lack ribosomes & some have rough ER which have ribosomes
rough ER
covered in ribosomes found near the nucleus; the ribosomes on this make many of the cell’s proteins & deliver them throughout the cell
smooth ER
lacks ribosomes; makes lipids & breaks down toxic materials that could damage the cell
mitochondria
(“powerhouse of the cell”) large bodies with internal folded membranes; convert energy from nutrients into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Golgi apparatus
layers of membranes; makes compounds containing proteins; sorts & prepare these compounds for transport to other parts of the cell or out of the cell (“finishing, packaging & mailing centers”)
lysosomes
small sacs of digestive enzymes; digest substances within cell; acts as cellular garbage trucks, hauling away unusable waste & dumping it outside the cell (Lysol)
peroxisomes
membrane-enclosed organelles containing enzymes; break down harmful substances
vesicles
is a small sac that surrounds material to be moved into or out of a cell; all eukaryotic cells have these
centrioles
rod-shaped bodies (usually 2) near the nucleus; function in cell division, they help to organize the cell & divide the cell contents during this process
cilia
short hairlike projections that extend from the cell, moves the fluid around the cell (example: cells that line the respiratory tract have cilia that move impurities out of the system; ciliated cells in female reproductive tract move the egg cell)
flagellum
long, whiplike extension from the cell, moves the cell (male sperm cell)
B) phospholipid
What is the main substance of the plasma membrane?
A) cholesterol
B) phospholipid
C) protein
D) steroid
C) mitochondrion
Which organelle generates ATP?
A) centriole
B) golgi apparatus
C) mitochondrion
D) ribosome
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis & filtration
the 4 types of passive transport processes (movement across the plasma membrane that does not require ATP)
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
facilitated diffusion
solute diffuses with help of a transporter; insulin is the transporter for glucose into cells
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane; movement of water from a lower solute concentration to high solute concentration (examples: hypertonic solution, hypotonic solution & isotonic )
filtration
mechanical force pushes solute & solvent across plasma membrane
active transport
movement of materials through the plasma membrane against the concentration gradient using transporters
C) facilitated diffusion
Which process uses transporters but not ATP?
A) active transport
B) endocytosis
C) facilitated diffusion
D) simple diffusion
endocytosis & exocytosis
these 2 active (vesicular) transport processes require ATP
endocytosis
transport of bulk amounts of materials into the cell using vesicles
phagocytosis, pinocytosis & receptor-mediated endocytosis
3 examples of endocytosis
phagocytosis
“cell eating”- large particles are engulfed by the plasma membrane & moved into the cell; membrane pinches off forming a vesicle that carries the particle into the cytoplasm
pinocytosis
process by which certain cells engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid; “cell drinking”
B) endocytosis
Which method transports bulk amounts of material into the cell using vesicles?
A) active transport
B) endocytosis
C) exocytosis
D) osmosis
isotonic solution
Solution that is equal in solute concentration to that of the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to neither lose nor gain water by osmosis so it has no effect on the cell shape.
hypotonic solution
in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cell; causes a cell to swell and possibly burst (lysis) as water enters the cell
hypertonic solution
a solution that has a higher concentration of solute outside than inside a cell, causing water to leave the cell by osmosis (shrink or crenate)
B) hypertonic
Cells crenate when they are placed in solutions that are
A) catatonic
B) hypertonic
C) hypotonic
D) isotonic
protein synthesis
the process that describes how enzymes & other proteins are made from DNA
transcription & translation
the 2 steps of protein synthesis
transcription
occurs in nucleus, DNA code is transcribed into mRNA by nucleotide base pairing
translation
occurs in cytoplasm; mRNA leaves nucleus & travels to ribosomes; ribosomes & tRNA translate mRNA into protein’s amino acid sequence
messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
What are the 3 kinds of RNA molecules produced during transcription?
messenger RNA (mRNA)
A type of RNA, synthesized using a DNA template, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
the most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons
transfer RNA (tRNA)
plays a role in protein synthesis by having an anticodon that recognizes one of the three base-pair codons in mRNA and brings the amino acid that matches that codon to the ribosome during translation
the differences between DNA & RNA
1st- DNA is in the nucleus & RNA is in the cytoplasm.
2nd -DNA is double-stranded helix (A-T; G-C pairing) & RNA is single stranded (A-U, G-C pairing)
3rd-DNA has the sugar deoxyribose & RNA has the sugar ribose
4th- DNA nucleotides contain adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) & thymine (T) & RNA nucleotides contain adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) & uracil (U)
C) thymine
Which DNA nucleotide pairs with adenine?
A) cytosine
B) guanine
C) thymine
D) uracil
B) messenger RNA
Which RNA is transcribed from DNA?
A) amino acid
B) messenger RNA
C) ribosomal RNA
D) transfer RNA
B) protein
What is synthesized during translation?
A) amino acid
B) protein
C) starch
D) triglyceride
meiosis & mitosis
the 2 types of cell division
meiosis
The process that occurs in sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to prepare for the union of egg & sperm in fertilazation
mitosis
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes (human body cells have 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes)
preparation for mitosis
before mitosis can occur, the genetic information (DNA) in the parent cell must be replicated (doubled), so that both of new daughter cells will receive a complete set of chromosomes
the 5 stages of mitosis
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase & telophase
interphase
when the cell is not dividing
prophase
first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of poles & form spindle
metaphase
second phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell & attach to spindle
anaphase
the centromere splits & the duplicated chromosomes separate & begin to move toward opposite ends of the cell
telophase
the final phase a membrane appears around each group of separated chromosomes, forming 2 new nuclei
C) prophase
During which phase of mitosis are chromosomes first visible?
A) anaphase
B) metaphase
C) prophase
D) telophase
cancer risk factors
heredity, chemicals, radiation, physical irritation, diet & viruses are risk factors for what?
B) a family history of cancer
Which of the following is a cancer risk factor?
A) a diet rich in fruits & vegetables
B) a family history of cancer
C) regular exercise
D) regular use of sunscreen
carcinogen
any chemical that causes cancer; the most common in our society are those present in cigarette smoke
B) membrane potential
What is the voltage difference on either side of the plasma membrane called?
A) interphase
B) membrane potential
C) selective permeability
D) transcription
C) mitochondria
Where does ATP synthesis occur?
A) endoplasmic reticulum
B) golgi apparatus
C) mitochondria
D) nucleus
A) diffusion
What is movement of solute from a region of high concentration to one of lower concentration called?
A) diffusion
B) endocytosis
C) exocytosis
D) osmosis
B) ACUUG
A DNA sequence reads: TGAAC. What is its mRNA sequence?
A) ACTTG
B) ACUUG
C) CAGGT
D) CAGGU
D) mitosis
Which process produces new somatic cells?
A) crenation
B) hemolysis
C) meiosis
D) mitosis
epithelial, connective tissue, muscle tissue, & nervous tissue
4 main tissue groups
histology
the study of tissues
epithelial tissue
covers surfaces, lines cavities, & forms glands; tightly packed to better protect underlying tissue or form barriers between systems
connective tissue
supports & forms the framework of all parts of the body
muscle tissue
contracts & produces movement
nervous tissue
conducts nerve impulses
squamous, cuboidal, & columnar
the 3 characteristics of epithelial tissue
squamous cells
flat irregular cells with flat nuclei (blood vessels)
cuboidal cells
square (cube shaped) cells with round nuclei (pancreatic duct)
columnar cells
long narrow (column shaped) cells with ovoid basal nuclei (uterine tube)
simple, stratified, & pseudostratified
the 3 classifications of epithelial tissue by layers
simple epithelial
cells arranged in a single layer; this type of epithelium functions as a thin barrier through which materials can pass easily (absorption of materials from lining of digestive tract into blood & allows for passage of oxygen from blood to body tissues)
stratified epithelial
epithelial cells in multiple layers; areas subject to wear & tear that require protection
simple squamous epithelium
a single layer of flat, irregular cells
stratified squamous epithelium
tissue with many layers of flat irregular cells
pseudostratified
if the cells are staggered so that they appear to be in multiple layers but really not
the 4 main functions of epithelium tissue
1) produces mucous, digestive juices, & sweat
2) lines respiratory tract, have tiny hairlike projections called cilia
3) digestive tract has goblet cells that secret mucus which protects the lining of the digestive organs
4) repairs itself quickly after injury
mucus & cilia
these help trap dust & other foreign particles before they reach the lungs
goblet cells
mucus secreting cells scattered among the pseudostratified epithelial cells
glands
an organ specialized to produce a substance that is sent out to other parts of the body; manufactures these secretions from materials removed from the blood
exocrine & endocrine glands
the 2 categories of glands
exocrine glands
these glands have ducts or tubes to carry secretions away from the gland; ducts may carry the secretions to another organ, cavity or to the body surface; these substances act in the limited area near the source
endocrine glands
“ductless glands” secrete directly into surrounding tissue fluid, most secretions are absorbed into bloodstream which carries them thruout the body; extensive network of blood vessels; secretions are known as hormones (affect on specific tissues known as target tissues)
the differences between exocrine & endocrine glands
1) exocrine have ducts & endocrine are ductless
2) exocrine glands act in a limited area near their source & produce secreations & endocrine glands secrete hormones, absorbed into the blood stream that carries them throughout body, have effects on specific tissues (target tissues)
D) stratified squamous epithelium
You are studying a slide in anatomy lab. You see several layers of tile-shaped cells. What tissue is most likely on the slide?
A) simple columnar epithelium
B) stratified columnar epithelium
C) simple squamous epithelium
D) stratified squamous epithelium
B) pancreas secretes insulin, which regulates blood sugar
Which is an example of an endocrine gland?
A) glands secrete hydrochloric acid into the stomach
B) pancreas secretes insulin, which regulates blood sugar
C) respiratory epithelium secretes mucus on its surface
D) salivary glands secrete enzymes into the mouth
connective tissue
the supporting fabric everywhere in the body, contains large amounts of matrix between cells
collagen
a flexible white protein, main fiber in connective tissue
matrix
the intercellular background material, contains varying amounts of water, fibers & hard minerals
Histologist
specialist in the study of tissues
chondrocyte
the cells that produce cartilage
cartilage
because of its strength & flexibilty- it is a structural material that provides reinforcement
circulating, generalized & structural connective tissues
3 physical properties of connective tissues
circulating connective tissue
connective tissue with fluid consistency that travels in vessels; its cells are suspended in a liquid matrix; carries nutrients, gases, wastes & other materials throughout body
blood & lymph
2 types of circulating connective tissue
generalized connective tissue
connective tissue that is widely distributed, it supports & protects structures
loose & dense connective tissue
2 types of generalized connective tissue
loose connective tissue
tissue with soft matrix (adipose)
areolar & adipose
2 types of loose connective tissue
areolar tissue
Gel like matrix with three types of fiber and some white blood cells. Location – wide spread, lies under epithelial tissue, between muscles & around organs & vessels. It is the most common type of connective tissue
adipose tissue
tissue composed of cells modified to store fat; insulates the body & is stored in tissues as energy supply
dense connective tissue
tissue with firm matrix, large numbers of collagen & elastic fibers
hyaline, fibrocartilage & elastic cartilage
3 forms of cartilage
hyaline cartilage
“gristle”; tough translucent cartilage (tip of nose)
fibrocartilage
firm rigid cartilage (between vertebra)
bone
tissue with solid matrix hardened with mineral salts, makes up bones of skeleton, gives structure, support & protection to body; works with muscles to produce movement
elastic cartilage
cartilage made with mostly elastic fibers; can stretch & return to original size (outer portion of ear)
osseous tissue
the tissue that composes bones
osteoblasts
the cells that form bone
osteoclasts
matured bone cells
A) bone
Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to
A) bone
B) fat
C) muscle
D) tendon
B) dense connective tissue
You are studying a slide of body tissues in anatomy lab. You see a few, similar cells that do not contact each other & many thick collagen fibers oriented in the same direction. What tissue is most likely on the slide?
A) areolar tissue
B) dense connective tissue
C) stratified epithelial tissue
D) transitional epithelial tissue
muscle tissue
tissue designed to produce movement by contraction of cells called muscle fibers
skeletal, cardiac & smooth muscles
3 types of muscle fibers
skeletal muscle
is a voluntary muscle that works with bones & tendons to move the body; cells are heavily striated (pattern of dark & light bands) & has multiple nuclei
cardiac muscle
is a involuntary (contracts independently) muscle that forms the bulk of heart wall known as myocardium, contains intercalated disks; produces regular heart contractions known as heart beats
smooth muscle
is a involuntary muscle, no striations, formed in the walls of hollow organs in ventral cavities such as stomach, intestine, gallbladder, urinary bladder, together these organs are known as viscera; found in the walls of blood vessels (bronchioles). Attached to the base of each body hair, contractions of these muscles causes “goose bumps”
B) cardiac muscle tissue
Which tissue is striated & under involuntary control?
A) areolar connective tissue
B) cardiac muscle tissue
C) skeletal muscle tissue
D) smooth muscle tissue
nervous tissue
this tissue makes up body’s communication system
3 components of nervous system
brain (central agent), nerves (wires) & spinal cord (great trunk cable which in turn leads to the central switch board of brain)
neuron
the basic unit of nervous tissue, transmits nerve impulses. It consists of a nerve cell body plus small branches from the cell called fibers.These fibers carry nerve impulses to & from the cell body
nerve
is a bundle of nerve cell fibers held together with connective tissue
dendrite & axon
2 types of nervous tissue fibers
dendrite
short fibers that form tree like branches which carry messages in the form of nerve impulses to the nerve cell body
axon
single fiber, carries impulse away from nerve cell body; some are insulated & protected by material called myelin
myelin
this is a fatty material that insulates & protects nerve fibers, it makes up the white matter of the brain & spinal cord
neuroglia
specialized cells that support & protect nervous tissue, some protect brain from harmful substances, some get rid of foreign organisms & cellular debris, some form myelin sheath around axons= do not transmit nerve impulses
A) axon
Which fiber conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body?
A) axon
B) dendrite
C) fibril
D) oligocyte
membranes
thin sheets of tissue; functions=covers surfaces, serve as dividers, line hollow organs or body cavities, anchor organs & secrete lubricants to ease the movement of organs
epithelial & connective tissue membranes
two main categories of membranes
serous, mucous & cutaneous membranes
3 types of epithelial membranes
serous membranes
line the walls of body cavities & cover internal organs, do not connect to outside of body & secrete serous fluid that acts as a lubricant
mucous membranes
line tubes & other spaces that open to the outside of body
cutaneous membrane
commonly known as skin
pleurae, serous pericardium & peritoneum
3 types of serous membranes
pleurae or pleuras
line the thoracic cavity & cover each lung; parietal layer lines thoracic cavity, visceral layer covers lungs (you can get fluid between these layers)
serous pericardium
forms part of sac that encloses the heart, which is located in the chest between the lungs; parietal layer lines the pericardial sac (outside layer), visceral layer covers heart (closer to organ)
peritoneum
is the largest serous membrane. It lines the walls of abdominal cavity, covers the abdominal organs & forms supporting & protective structures within the abdomen; parietal layer lines abdominal cavity, visceral layer covers abdominal organs
parietal layer
the portion of the serous membrane attached to the wall of a cavity or sac
parietal pleura
lines the thoracic (chest) cavity
parietal pericardium
lines the fibrous sac (the fibrous pericardium) that encloses the heart
viscera
what internal organs are called
visceral layer
the portion of the serous membrane attached to an organ
visceral pericardium
on the surface of the heart
visceral pleura
covers lung surface
meninges
these are several membranous layers covering the brain & the spinal cord (3 types- dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater)
fibrous pericardium
forms the cavity that encloses the heart, the pericardial cavity
periosteum
s the membrane around (surrounds) a bone
perichondrium
is the membrane around (surrounds) cartilage
peritonitis
an infection of the peritoneum which can follow rupture of the appendix
systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritus & scleroderma
3 types of connective tissue or collagen diseases
D) pleura
Which membrane contains epithelial tissue?
A) bursa
B) fascia
C) meninges
D) pleura
tumor or neoplasm
any abnormal growth of cells
benign tumor
if the tumor in confined to a local area & does not spread
malignant tumor
if the tumor spreads to neighboring tissues or distant parts of the body
cancer
the general term for any type of malignant tumor
oncology
is the medical specialty that studies & treats cancer
metastasis
malignant cells spread to distant body regions, when they arrive at other sites, they form new (secondary) growthsor metastases
carcinoma & sarcoma
2 main categories malignant tumors are classified
carcinoma
originates in the epithelium & is most common form of cancer, usual sites: skin, mouth, lung, breast, stomach, colon, prostate & uterus, spreads by lymphathic system
sarcoma
a form of connective tissue cancer, may be found anywhere in the body; usually spreads by blood & often metastases in the lungs
signs of cancer
what are these signs for: unusual bleeding or discharge, persistent indigestion, chronic hoarseness or cough, changes in color of moles, sore that does not heal, unusual lump, white patches in mouth or whit spots on tongue, weight loss & pain
C) neoplasm
What is another term for tumor?
A) arthritis
B) bursa
C) neoplasm
D) peritonitis
A) biopsy
What is the removal of living tissue for microscopic examination called?
A) biopsy
B) computed tomography
C) magnetic resonance imaging
D) position emission tomography