biology eoc review – Mechanisms of Genetics

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asexual reproduction
Offspring’s genes come from 1 parent
sexual reproduction
Offspring’s genes come from 2 parents via each parent’s gamete; results in greater genetic variation compared to asexual reproduction
Reproductive cell that has half the number of chromosomes as parent cell (egg is female gamete, sperm is male gamete)
Two-staged cell division process that produces gametes
Organism’s characteristic
Passing of traits from one generation to the next
Structure in cell’s nucleus that contains DNA; humans have 46 (23 pairs)
sex chromosomes
Chromosomes that determine sex
Form of a gene that controls a characteristic (letters)
Two copies of the same allele (RR or rr)
Two different alleles (Rr)
dominant trait
Trait that appears when at least one dominant allele is inherited; dominant allele is represented by a capital letter
recessive trait
Trait that appears when two recessive alleles are inherited; recessive allele is represented by a lowercase letter
Inherited combination of alleles that is represented by two letters (RR, Rr, rr)
Organism’s appearance based on its genotype
Punnett square
Diagram that helps predict the possible genotypes and phenotypes of offspring based on the parents’ genotypes
Mendelian genetics
Laws regarding the inheritance of genetic traits
non-mendelian inheritance
Inheritance pattern that does not follow Mendelian genetic laws
Segment of DNA; controls specific hereditary characteristics
gene expression
Regulated process by which gene transcription and translation are controlled by various factors, such as hormones
Set of all genes that specify an organism’s traits
Insertion, deletion, or substitution in DNA sequence; can cause a change in mRNA
Formed from a sequence of 3 nucleotides (like AAA or GAC); different codons specify one or twenty different amino acids
Three part structure that makes up nucleic acid molecules (DNA and RNA)
RNA (ribonucleotide)
Nucleic acid that uses genetic information from DNA to produce proteins
Categories: Genetics