Biology – Genetics
Form of a gene. Each characteristic has two alleles.
trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up by the dominant gene
sex cell; sperm or egg
A base thats found in DNA. It will only bond with Thymine.
Building blocks of protein
Reproduction of identical offspring from a single parent. No gametes involved
Any chromosome other than the sex chromosomes.
One of four chemicals which make up the ‘rungs’ of DNA; A;T;C;G
Two bases making each rung of DNA: either A-T or C-G
The variation in species within an ecosystem
The structural and functional unit of all living things
The formation of two or more daughter cells
Thread-like structures bearing genes that are found in the nucleus of a cell
A distinctive inherited feature of organism
A process that produces identical genetic individuals
A base pair found in DNA. It will only bond with Guanine.
Deoxyribonucleic acid. A molecule found in the nucleus of cells which provides an individuals genetic code
The process whereby DNA makes an exact copy of itself
An allele that controls the phenotype regardless of what the other allele is
a term used to describe the structure of DNA – a spiral ladder shape
The fusion of a male and female gamete to form a zygote
A sex cell. Ovum (egg) in females or sperm in males. Ovule and pollen in plants.
A length of DNA carrying the code for one feature
the genetic information held in DNA
The combination of two alleles that an organism has for a particular gene.
A base that is found in DNA. It will only bond with cytosine
Having two different alleles for a particular gene; not true breeding
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene; true or pure breeding
the passing on of traits from generation to generation through the genetic code.
photograph of individual chromosomes of a cell arranged in pairs and showing their number, size and shape
The type of cell division that produces gametes. Occurs in the ovaries or testes in animals.
The type of cell division which produces identical daughter cells from one parent cell.
A change in sequence of bases in the genetic code which is transmitted to subsequent generations
A molecule containing a sugar-phosphate-base, found in DNA. These bases pair to form DNA
New individuals formed by either asexual or sexual reproduction.
An individual that is able to grow and reproduce
The female organ that produces female gametes.
A chart which shows how genes are inherited
The characteristics of an organism produced by a particular genetype
Molecules that contain amino acids.
The male gametes of plants
A diagram used to predict the phenotype and genotype ratios of offspring.
Organisms that are homozygous for a trait.
An allele which is only expressed in the offspring if the dominant allele is missing
A process that is used to breed for specific required traits
DNA replication which involving the DNA unzipping and pairing up with new matching nucleotides forming two new DNA molecules.
A chromosome that determines the sex of the individual
Reproduction involving the fusion of two gametes. Produces variation in offspring
The male organ that produces gametes
A base that is found in DNA. It will only bond with adenine.
A feature whose appearance is determined by genes
A sequence of three nucleotides found on a DNA strand
the difference between individuals
A fertilised egg. A single cell containing chromosomes from male and female gametes at the point of fertilisation.