DNA Webquest: A self guided introduction to basic genetics

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Every living thing needs a set of instructions that are necessary to live and grow. Where are these instructions found?
DNA
What does DNA encode?
protein
DNA is an abbreviation for
deoxyribonucleic acid
The twisted ladder shape of DNA is called
double helix
We have 26 letters in our alphabet. How many letters does DNA have?
4
What do the letters of the DNA alphabet stand for?
a = adenine
c = cytosine
g = guanine
t = thymine
A special protein in your blood captures and carries oxygen. This protein is called
hemoglobin
What happens if the instructions to make this protein are mutated(changed)?
sickle cell anemia
What protein makes up your hair and nails?
keratin
How long would the DNA from a human cell be if you stretched it out?
2m
DNA is packages and coiled up into structures called
histones
Draw what a chromosome looks like
Draw what a chromosome looks like
How many chromosomes does a human have? We get __ chromosomes from each parent
46, 23
Do all living things have as many chromosomes as people?
No, depends on their need and species
_________________ are responsible for picking up a pain signal and delivering it to the next cell, all the way to the brain
nerve networks
Which type of protein is like bricks that can be stacked up like columns, giving the nerve cell its shape?
structural proteins
The blueprint(or set of instructions) to make a protein is called a _____. Genes are long strands of
RNA, DNA
When a cell needs to make the protein, special parts within the nucleus read the DNA and use that information to produce messages in the form of
mRNA
RNA moves from the __________ to the ____________________________ of the cell. Once there, the cell’s protein makers called ______________, read the message and produces a protein that matches the instructions laid out by the gene.
transcription, RNA polymerse, ribosomes
By looking at the above diagram, what can you conclude about the relationship between A, C, T and G?
A-T
C-G
DNA molecules contain information for building specific ________________
proteins
In a 3D view, a DNA molecule looks like a spiral staircase; correctly called a
double helix
The constant parts of the helix are the ______________ and _______________, forming the backbone of the ladder
phosphates, sugars
It is said that the bases of DNA, which form the rungs of the ladder are ______________________, which means they can be joined together, following specific rules
complementary
The rules say that adenine will form a cross bridge bond with _____________ and cytosine will bond with _______________
thymine, guanine
The process of making another copy of DNA is called
replication
Each strand acts as a ________________ to make the other half
template
The fact that DNA replicates before cell division ensures that each new cell has a complete set of
genes
The information of DNA is actually in the form of a code, where the sequence of _____________ ultimately tells the cell what protein to make
bases
When the four bases are combined in different three letter sequences, different ___________________________ of the protein are called for
amino acids
During a process called ________________, the message of DNA is copied onto a different molecule called mRNA
transcription
RNA has a base called ____________, that behaves like thymine
uracil
Like thymine, it will form ___________________________________ with adenine in DNA
hydrogen bonds
The ribosome then reads the message, three letters at a time through a process called
translation
The three letter words of the message are called ____________ are matched with their counterparts, called anti-codons
codons
Categories: Genetics