Fundamentals of Genetics

Published by admin on

Passing of traits from parents to offspring
Branch of biology that studies heredity
Monohybrid Cross
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
All of the offspring display only one form of a particular trait
P Generation
First two individuals crossed in a breeding experiment
F1 Generation
Offspring of the P generation
F2 Generation
Offspring of the F1 generation
Different forms of a gene
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Set of alleles an individual has (BB, Bb,bb)
An organism’s physical appearance, or visible traits.
Law of Segregation
First law of heredity stating that pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed.
Law of Independent Assortment
The alleles of different genes separate independently of one another during gamete formation
A genetically determined variant of a characteristic
Dihybrid Cross
A cross that involves two pairs of contrasting traits.
Punnett Square
A diagram that predicts the outcomes of a genetic cross.
Test Cross
Crossing an unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive to determine the other genotype (dominant could be YY or Yy)
The likelihood that a particular event will occur
Genotypic Ratio
Fraction of genotypes that appear in offspring
Complete Dominance
When Heterozygous plants and homozygous dominant plats have the same phenotype
the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant
Incomplete Dominance
When an individual displays a trait that is intermediate between the two parents.
When both alleles for a trait are expressed in heterozygous individuals. Both alleles are equal (AB).
Phenotypic Ratio
Fraction of the phenotypes that will appear in the offsprings
Occurs between flowers of two plants.
Molecular Genetics
Study of the structure and function of chromosomes and genes
The transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma.
Categories: Genetics