Site of crossing over
Control of mating to ensure that “defective” genes of troublesome individuals will not be passed on to future generations. Positive=promotion of breeding people with favorable genes. Negative=discouragement breeding among those with undesirable traits
The branch of genetics concerned with the mechanisms by which genes are transferred from parent to offspring.
Study of DNA structure and function on the molecular level
A macromolecule usually consisting of antiparallel polynucleotide chains held together by hydrogen bonds, in which the sugar residues are deoxyribose. It is the primary carrier of genetic information.
the concept that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins
Examines the frequency, distribution, and inheritance of alleles within a population
an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration.
Cell division that produces gametes
1 diploid parent cell splits into 2 identical diploid daughter cells.
All cells in your body except for your sex cells
A haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis.
The exchange of corresponding segments of the chromatids of two homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Stages of Meiosis
Interphase, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, teleophase I, cytokinesis, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, cytokinesis
Stages of Mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
chromatin condenses into chromosomes
nuclear envelope disappears, chromosomes align at the equatorial plate.
sister chromatids separate, centromeres divide
chromatin expands, cytoplasm divides
sum of the phases of growth of an individual cell type; dived into G1(growth 1), S (DNA synthesis), G2 (growth 2), and M (mitosis)
An organism that has two identical alleles of a gene for a given character
Describes two different alleles at a specific locus.
set of alleles present in the genome of an organism
double stranded DNA molecule packaged by histone & scaffold proteins.
Chromosomes that share centromere position, share overall size, contain identical gene sets at matching positions (loci ) .
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
An alternative form of a gene.
collection of all genetic material of organism
“Father of genetics;” used statistical analysis of breeding experiments to arrive at the concept of a gene; developed the law of dominance, genes and alleles, and the segregation of alleles
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
cross with homozygous recessive organism
the ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring.
a ratio that shows the varied outcomes that results from a genetic cross and is based on physical appearance alone
Laws of Mendel
1. Discreet units of dominance and recessive-ness, 2. Segregation of traits, 3. random (independent) assortment, did not discover crossing over
a genetic cross involving two characters in which the parents possess different forms of each character (e.g., yellow, round X green, wrinkled peas)
a genetic cross between two individuals involving only one character. (AA x aa)
Advantages of pea plants
each flower has both sperm and egg organs; easy cross-pollination; mating can be controlled
the function of proteins
cell growth, repair, maintenance. Enzymes and hormone. Fluid and electrolyte balance.
A set of rules that defines how the four-letter code of DNA is translated into the 20-letter code of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins.
the structure of nucleic acid
DNA is a polymer made of repeating subunits called nucleotides
Technique used to screen a single sample for a vast range of different nucleotide sequences stimultaneously; it is often used to study gene expression
genes are packaged into chromosomes, and chromosomes are passed on from on cell to the next
separates Q arm and P arm
single nucleotides polymorphous. associated with mutations that are allowed for genetic variation.
cut proteins to alter gene expression
mitosis and meiosis are
mechanisms by which cells distribute the genetic information contained in their chromosomes to progeny cells in a precise, orderly fashion.
Mendel’s work on pea plants established
the principles of the transmission of genes from parents to offspring and established the foundation for the science of genetics
Recombinant DNA technology
allows genes from one organism to be spliced into vectors and cloned, serving as the basis for a far-reaching technology used in molecular genetics.
the use of model organisms
has advanced our basic understanding of genetic mechanisms and , coupled with recombinant DNA technology, has been used to develop models for human genetic diseases.
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.
study what is happening in an entire cell
an allele that is masked by a dominant allele. The dominant gene is always expressed in heterozygous.
first filial generation (offsprings from parents)
Second filial generation of genetic code (F1 offspring)
A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.