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field of genetics that attempts to understand the content, organization, function, and evolution of genetic information contained in whole genomes.
Structural genomics
Studies the organization and sequence of genetic information contained within a gene
Genetic Maps
based on recombination frequencies
Physical maps
based on the direct DNA sequence (Map-based sequencing, Whole-genome shotgun sequencing)
emerging field consisting of molecular biology and computer science that centers on developing databases, computer-search algorithms, gene prediction software, and other analytical tool s
First create detailed genetic and physical maps of the genome, which provide known locations of genetic markers at regularly spaced intervals along each chromosome. (laboring extensive)
Shot gun
maps are not needed;rely on a computer
Comparative Genomics
Compares similarities and differences in gene content, function, and organization among genomes of different organisms.
Gene deserts
Large area with no known genes
Functional genomics
The study of gene functions based on the resulting RNAs or proteins they encode, and considers the functions of other components of the genome, such as regulatory elements.
All the RNA molecules transcribed from a genome
All the proteins encoded by the genome
Monitor gene expression in different tissues or under different conditions (nucleic and hybridization)
Study of the proteome, complete set of proteins found in a given cell
Mass spectrometry
Method for precisely determining the molecular mass of a molecule (mass-to-charge m/z ratio)
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
changes in DNA sequence that modify restriction enzyme recognition sites
-base changes between individ. will introduce/remove RE site
-results in unique patterns in individ.
-can trace within families
Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR)
differences in copy number (SSLP, mini satellite, microsatellite)
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
single base change
Genetic Engineering
altering an organism genome (Genetically modified organisms [GMOs])
Gene therapy
Therapeutic technique that aims to transfer normal genes into a patient’s cell. (wont be passed along to next generation b/c its not within the germ line)
Categories: Genetics