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the scientific study of heredity
any characteristic that can be passed from parents to offspring
and organism that receives different genetic information for a trait from each parent; any organism that has one dominant gene and one recessive
any organism that receives the same genetic information for a trait from each parent; any organism that has either two dominant or two recessive genes
dominant trait
the trait that shows in a hybrid
recessive trait
the trait that does not show in a hybrid
homozygous dominant
having all dominant genes for a trait
homozygous recessive
having all recessive genes for a trait
having dominant and recessive genes for a trait
different versions of a gene for the same trait
the type of genes an organism has
the organism’s physical appearance
monohybrid cross
the inheritance of one gene at a time
why did gregor mendel choose pea plants?
.can be grown in a small area
.produce lots of offspring
.can be artificially cross-pollinated
law of dominance
.in a cross of parents that are pure for contrasting traits, only one form of the trait will appear in the next generation
.all the offspring will be heterozygous and express only one dominant trait
.ex) RR x rr = Rr
law of segregation
.during the formation of gametes, the two alleles responsible for a trait separate from each other
.alleles for a trait are then recombined at fertilization, producing the genotype for the traits of the offspring
law of independent assortment
.alleles for different traits are distributed to sex cells (and offspring) independently of one another
.this law can be illustrated using dihybrid crosses
sex-linked traits
alleles for these traits are the X chromosome only, not the Y
complete dominance
a relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another
incomplete dominance
neither allele is dominant. the two forms of the trait blend into a 3rd form in the heterozygote
both forms of trait show; both alleles are dominant
key words in questions
recessive-complete dominance
red + white = pink- incomplete dominance
red + white = red and white- co-dominance
.traits controlled by more than one gene (more that one pair of alleles)
.these traits show a wide range in different forms
ex) height, skin color, intelligence
.environment has an influence-multifactorial
Categories: Genetics