Genetics

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Allele
one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
Genetics
scientific study of how traits are inhereted
Gamete
egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair, specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction,
Dominent
the form of a trait that can dominate or mask a reccessive trait, to rule over by strength or power, control
Genotype
a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution, genetic makeup of an organism
Heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring, the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
Heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait, having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
Hybrid
an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock
PHenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype, physical characteristics of an organism
Recessive
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
Trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
Diploid
of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Haploid
of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
MRNA
the template for protein synthesis
Trna
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
Rrna
ribosomal RNA, type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
Transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation
the act of changing in form or shape or appearance
Mutagen
physical or chemical agent that causes mutations, any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation
Mutation
(genetics) any event that changes genetic structure, (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration, (genetics) any event that changes genetic structure
Point mutation
a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene, mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another, a mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed
Frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the “reading” frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Chromosomal mutation
(genetics) any event that changes genetic structure, mutation that occurs at the chromosomal level resulting in changes in the gene distribution to games during meiosis; caused when parts of chromosomes break off or rejoin incorrectly
Polygenic inheritance
process by which several genes interact to produce a certain trait; responsible for most important traits, combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
Sex chromosome
(genetics) a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual
Sex-linked trait
a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans
Karyotype
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
Carrier
Someone that carries a disease or disorder
Autosome
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Pedigree
the descendants of one individual
Multiple allele
presence of more than two alleles for a genetic trait, more than two alleles for a genetic trait
Codominant allele
both alleles are equally expressed
Categories: Genetics