Genetics: Chapter 1 Review
The branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms.
One of two alternate (variant) forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits.
A chromosome that does not have a gene that determines sex.
A field that addresses personal issues that arise in applying medical technology and information.
The alteration of cells or biochemicals with a specific application.
The fundamental unit of life. Cells become specialized (differentiate) based on the genes they express. Cells congregate to become tissues.
A highly wound continuous structure consisting of DNA and proteins (called histones) that carries the genes.
DNA is the molecule that carries all genetic information in the cell. DNA is a long molecule composed of four different nucleotides: A, G, T, and C
Cell specialization, reflecting differential gene expression.
A gene variant expressed when present in one copy.
Gene Expression Profiling
Use of DNA microarrays to detect the types and amounts of cDNAs reverse transcribed from the mRNAs in a particular cell source.
A sequence of DNA that contains the information needed to instruct a cell to produce/synthesize a particular protein.
Attributing a trait entirely to a gene or genes.
The complete set of genetic instructions in the cells of a particular type of organism.
Genome-wide Association Studies
A case-control study in which many thousands of variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms or copy number varients) that form haplotypes are compared between people with a condition and unaffected individuals.
The study of the functions and interactions of many genes, or other DNA sequences, or comparing genomes.
The allele combinations in an individual that cause particular traits or disorders. Their genotype is not immediately apparent.
A size-order chromosome chart consisting of all of the chromosome in an individual.
A trait or illness determined by several genes and the environment, also called a complex trait.
A change in a protein-encoding gene that affects the phenotype and occurs in less than one percent of a population.
A chart of symbols connected by lines that depict the genetic relationships and transmission of inherited traits in related individuals.
The expression of a gene in traits or symtoms through an observable likeness.
An allele whose expression is masked by another allele.
RNA is a nucleic acid whose bases are A, C, U, and G. RNA is a molecule that carries genetic information that has been copied from DNA.
A chromosome containing genes that specify sex.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
Single base sides that differ among individuals. A SNP in present in at least 1 percent of a population.
Flow of Genetic Information
Replication (the copying of the DNA molecule), Transcription (the synthesis of a temporary molecule of RNA), Translation (the process of synthesizing a protein from RNA), and then Proteins (they carry out structural and enzymatic function within the cell).
The copying of the DNA molecule.
The synthesis of a temporary molecule of RNA.
The process of synthesizing a protein from RNA.
Missing or abnormal chromosomes…
are indicators of diseases such as Down syndrome (an extra 21st chromosome).
Humans have (#) chromosomes: (#) pairs of autosomes and (#) sex chromosomes.
46, 22, 2
Sex chromosomes differ from males to females. Females have (?) while males have (?).
Tissues make up organs, which make up organ systems, and eventually organisms.
A variety of cell types and materials around them that protect, support, ind to cells, and fill spaces throughout the bod, include cartilage, bone, blood and fat.
Tight cell layers that form linings that protect, secrete, absorb, and excrete
Cells that contract, providing movement
Neurons transmit information as electrochemical impulses that coordinate movement and sense and respond to environmental stimuli; neuroglia are cells that support and nourish neurons
The frequency of specific alleles (blond hair, dark skin, blue eyes) in a population.
Evolution can be studied by…
comparing DNA sequences from different organisms to determine how closely they are related to one another.
Tries to define diseases as a problem of gene expression.
Traits that result from a single gene.
Traits that result from the interaction of one or more environmental factors and two or more genes.
Those diseases that result from abnormalities in chromosomes or DNA, and are inherited.
Applications of Genetics
Forensics, Relations, Health Care, Agriculture