Genetics chp 1-3

Published by admin on

translational medicine
genetic findings are directly translated into new and improved methods of diagnosis and treament
The theory of epigenesis states that
adult structures in the organism develop de novo from substances present in the egg
In many species, there are two representatives of each chromosome. In such species, the characteristic number of chromosomes is called the ________ number. It is usually symbolized as ________.
diploid, 2n
The functional unit of heredity is a
gene
How does genetic information flow in an organism?
DNA, RNA, protein
Which term describes the complete haploid content of DNA contained within an organism?
The genome is the entire collection of DNA in organism
All of the following are desirable qualities in a model organism EXCEPT
long life span. It is preferable for model organisms to have short life spans so that their development and aging can be studied within a short period of time.
What is an example of translational medicine?
A gene product associated with lower cholesterol levels is used to develop a treatment for high cholesterol.
Describe Mendel’s conclusions about how traits are passed from generation to generation
Mendel hypothesized that traits in peas are controlled by specific unit factors. He suggested that unit factors occur in pairs and that unit factors separate from each other during gamete formation.
If you wrote a brief essay discussing the impact of recombinant DNA technology on genetics as we perceive the discipline today, what applications of recombinant DNA technology should be included?
plant and animal husbandry
understanding gene function
plant and animal production
medical advances
drug development
forensics
What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?
It states that inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes that are transmitted by gametes.
How is the chromosome theory of inheritance related to Mendel’s findings?
The chromosome theory of inheritance is based on the parallels between Mendel’s model of heredity and the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis.
The __________ of an organism is defined as its specific allelic or genetic constitution.
genotype
The __________ of an organism is defined as its observable sum of features.
phenotype
How do alleles fit into your definitions?
A population can contain many alleles for a gene, but an individual diploid organism has only two alleles for a gene.
Alleles are alternative forms of a gene.
Differenet alleles may produce differences in the phenotype of an organism.
Given the state of knowledge at the time of the Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty experiment, why was it difficult for some scientists to accept that DNA is the carrier of genetic information?
Genes possess a variety of functions. Since proteins can contain up to 20 different amino acids, while DNA is made up of only four different nucleotides, proteins should have more functional variations. It seemed likely that proteins should be the genetic material.
Contrast chromosomes and genes.
Genes take part in the production of proteins through the processes of transcription and translation. They are the functional units of heredity. Chromosomes carry genes and take part in cell division during mitosis and meiosis.
How is genetic information encoded in a DNA molecule?
Genetic information is encoded in DNA by the sequence of bases.
Identify the central dogma of molecular genetics.
DNA, RNA, protein
How does the central dogma of molecular genetics serve as the basis of modern genetics?
Because DNA and RNA are discrete chemical entities, they can be isolated, studied, and manipulated in a variety of experiments that define modern genetics.
How has the use of model organisms advanced our knowledge of the genes that control human diseases?
What is learned in one organism can usually be applied to all organisms
Most model organisms have peculiarities (ease of growth, genetic understanding, abundant offspring).
smooth ER
lipid synthesis
calcium ion storage
poison detoxification
rough ER
protein synthesis
Golgi apparatus
protein modification and sorting
cisternal maturation
lysosomes
macromolecule digestion
autophagy
Which of the following proteins are synthesized by bound ribosomes?
lysosomal enzyme
insulin
ER protein
During which stage can cells either exit the cell cycle or become committed to completing the cell cycle?
G1
The longest stage of interphase is G2.
false
Which condition is evaluated at the G2/M checkpoint?
precise replication of DNA
Which list of steps in the eukaryotic cell cycle is given in the correct order?
G1 – S – G2 – M – G1
Haploid cells do not undergo mitosis
false
Each of the following events occurs during mitosis except
polar microtubules contract, pulling attached chromosomes toward the poles
A dyad is composed of
two sister chromatids joined at a common centromere.
Which statement correctly describes how cellular DNA content and ploidy levels change during meiosis I and meiosis II?
DNA content is halved in both meiosis I and meiosis II. Ploidy level changes from diploid to haploid in meiosis I, and remains haploid in meiosis II.
Male gametogenesis
millions of gametes produced daily
germ cells produced in adulthood
meiosis produces four mature gametes
Female gametogenesis
one gamete produced per month
cytokinesis is unequal
meiosis produces a single mature gamete
meiosis I arrested for many years
germ cells produced prenatally
meiosis II completed after fertilization
Maternal nondisjunction, the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly, is associated Down syndrome and other types of aneuploidy in humans. Maternal age is associated with nondisjunction, although no age effect is seen in males. How might these findings be explained with respect to gametogenesis?
During spermatogenesis, germ cells are produced daily, while during oogenesis, germ cells are produced prenatally. The difference in the “age” of the gametes at the time of fertilization may contribute to the observed effect.

During ovum production, primary oocytes are arrested for years in meiosis I, increasing the likelihood of components involved in chromosome segregation to break down.

meiosis only occurs in
germline cells
transcription occurs in the
nucleus
translation occurs in the
cytoplasm
the purpose of germline cells is to produce
gametes
we have 46 chromosomes or _______pairs
23
Which list of steps in the eukaryotic cell cycle is given in the correct order?
Categories: Genetics