Genetics Sentence Correction and Matching

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heredity
the study of the inheritance of traits
dominant/dominance
when one gene expresses itself over another (the former gene)/one gene masking another’s expression
phenotype
your behavior and physical appearance /physical characteristics of an organism
genotype
the genes that you are carrying in your cells/genetic makeup of an organism
replication
the process by which a chromosome makes an identical copy of itself
recessive
when one gene expresses itself over another (the latter gene)
meiosis
process of cell division resulting in daughter cells, each containing one half of the normal number of chromosomes
DNA
chromosomes are made of this material
mutation
when a chromosome does not make an accurate copy of itself/ an error in the copying of the gene
zygote
when a sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell the resulting cell is
sex chromosomes
the X and Y chromosomes
genes
chromosomes are comprised of hundreds of these
46
the normal number of chromosomes in a human body cell
sex-linked trait
a trait or disorder that is inherited through the sex chromosomes
color blindess
example of a sex-linked disorder
23
the number of chromosomes carried in each human sperm and egg cell
albino
a result of a mutation, when an organism cannot produce pigment for skin, hair, or eyes
heterozygous
having different alleles for a given trait
multiple genes
two or more pairs of genes influencing a trait
multiple alleles
three or more genes influencing a trait
crossing over
the exchange of genetic material between two chromosomes
nondisjunction
failure of a chromosome pair to separate during meiosis
polyploidy
a cell having an extra set of chromosomes
linkage
genes on the same chromosome
pure-bred
homozygous for a given trait
blending inheritance
in a pair of genes, neither is dominant nor recessive
Mendel
Father of genetics
homozygous
having identical alleles for a trait
Drosophila
fruit flies used in genetic research
Punnett Square
used to diagram genetic crosses
alleles
different forms of a particular gene
Categories: Genetics