Genetics (Year 11)

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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; The genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
Gene
A segment of DNA found on a chromosome that determines the inheritance of a particular character
Chromosome
Thread like structures, made of DNA and contains many genes
Alleles
Different forms of a gene for a character. e.g. blue eyes or brown eyes.
Mitosis
A process of cell division that forms two new identical cells, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
Meiosis
The process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells
Monohybrid
Mating of two organisms that differ in only one character
Trait
Specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
Inheritance
The process of passing genetic information from one generation to the next
Sex Determination
The biological mechanism that determines whether an organism will develop as a male or female
Dominant
The inherited characteristic that appears in an organism
Recessive
The inherited characteristic often covered by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a character
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a character
Genotype
The Genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype
An organism’s physical appearance, or visible characters
Zygote
A cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm cell
Fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female sex cells join to form a new cell
Punnett square
Diagram used to show the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross Or A diagrammatic technique used to work out the expected genotype and phenotype ratios in offspring from a mating.
Pedigree chart
A diagram used to find out the genotypes of members of a family over several generations Or A chart which shows the relationships within a family
Offspring
An organism that comes from one or two parents
Genetics
The branch of biology dealing with heredity Or Study of how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next
Somatic cell
Any cell that is not a sex cell (sperm and egg cell) i.e. skin cell
Gamete
Sex cell; sperm or egg, involved in the sexual reproduction
Autosomes
A chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism.
Homologous
A pair of chromosomes similar in shape and content, one of which came from each parent.
Categories: Genetics