Pierce’s Genetics: Chapter 1
a. That all life forms are genetically related
b. That research findings on one organism’s gene function can often
be applied to other organisms
c. That genes from one organism can often exist and thrive in
d. All of the above
molecular genetics, and population genetics. Transmission genetics
examines the principles of heredity; molecular genetics deals
with the gene and the cellular processes by which genetic information
is transferred and expressed; population genetics concerns
the genetic composition of groups of organisms and how that
composition changes over time and geographic space. Model
genetic organisms are species that have received special emphasis
in genetic research; they have characteristics that make them useful
for genetic analysis.
propagate, they have too few progeny, and their generation time
is too long.
animals between approximately 10,000 and 12,000 years ago.This
domestication led to the development of agriculture and fixed
and nineteenth centuries laid the foundation for the field
of genetics today. After Mendel’s work was rediscovered in 1900,
the science of genetics developed rapidly and today is one of the
most active areas of science.
contribute to our modern understanding of genetics?
identification of parts of the cell, including the cell nucleus and
chromosomes. The cell theory focused the attention of biologists
on the cell, which eventually led to the conclusion that the
nucleus contains the hereditary information
gene itself: how genetic information is encoded, replicated,
of groups of individual members of the same species (populations)
and how that composition changes over time and
them particularly useful for genetic analysis and about which
a tremendous amount of genetic information has accumulated
reproduction and heredity. The dissection of animals by the
Greek physician Alcmaeon (circa 520 B.C.) sparked a long
philosophical debate about where semen was produced that
culminated in the concept of pangenesis.
developed musical ability through diligent study would produce children who are innately endowed with musical ability. Although incorrect, these ideas persisted through the twentieth century.
which proposed that offspring are a blend, or mixture,
of parental traits. This idea suggested that the genetic material
itself blends,much as blue and yellow pigments blend to
make green paint. Once blended, genetic differences could
not be separated out in future generations, just as green paint
cannot be separated out into blue and yellow pigments.
Some traits do appear to exhibit blending inheritance; however,
thanks to Gregor Mendel’s research with pea plants, we
now understand that individual genes do not blend.
Introduction to Genetics 9
composed of cells, cells arise only from preexisting cells, and
the cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in
living organisms. Biologists began to examine cells to see
how traits were transmitted in the course of cell division.
that the cells in the reproductive organs carry a complete
set of genetic information that is passed to the egg and
person’s physical features, susceptibility to numerous diseases,
personality, and intelligence.
pharmaceutical industry, and medicine. It is central to the
study of biology
the foundation of evolution and is critical to understanding all
genetics, molecular genetics, and population genetics
that make them particularly amenable to genetic analysis and
about which much genetic information exists.
of plants and animals.
the inheritance of acquired characteristic
her traits from one parent. Blending inheritance proposed that
offspring possess a mixture of the parental traits.
Gregor Mendel discovered the principles of heredity.
Developments in cytology in the nineteenth century led to the
understanding that the cell nucleus is the site of heredity
Population genetics was established in the early 1930s, followed
closely by biochemical genetics and bacterial and viral
genetics. The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953,
stimulating the rise of molecular genetics
trait that they produce is the phenotype
nucleic acids and proteins and are partitioned into daughter
cells through the process of mitosis or meiosis.
information from DNA to RNA to proteins