Chapters 2&4

ionic bond
attractions between ions of opposite charge, one atom loses electrons and another gains electrons
covalent bond
forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
hydrogen bond
form when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to an O or an N atom in another molecule
inorganic molecule
lack carbon
organic molecule
always contain carbon and hydrogen
polar molecule
positive on one side and negative on the other, asymmetrical
non-polar molecule
symmetrical, charges cancel each other
acid
substance that dissociates into one or more H+
base
substance that dissociates into one or more OH-
salt
substance that dissociates into cations and anions, neither which is H+ or OH-
pH
level of acidity or base between 1 – 14
macromolecule
polymers consisting of repeating molecules
monomer
the smaller molecules that make up polymers, join by dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions
polymer
made up of monomers
dehydration synthesis
condensation reaction in which monomers join together into polymers while losing water molecules. This joining together by removing water, process is carried out by losing (-OH) from one of the monomers and (H) from another monomer
hydrolysis reactions
process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles, split by adding water
isomers
One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties
hydrophobic
does not combine with water
hydrophillic
combines with water
monosaccharide
simple sugars with 3 – 7 carbon atoms
disaccharide
formed when two monosaccharides are joined in a dehydration synthesis, can be broken by hydrolysis
oligosaccharide
consist of 2 – 20 monosacchrides
polysaccharide
consist of tens or hundreds monosacchrides joined by dehydration synthesis
glycerol
spine that fatty acids connect to
saturated fatty acids
have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain
unsaturated fatty acids
there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain
phopholipid
lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group
steroids
contains four rings of carbon atoms
polypeptides
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
peptide bonds
between two amino acids and formed by dehydration synthesis
conjugated proteins
protein that functions in interaction with other chemical groups attached by covalent bonds or by weak interactions
protein denaturing
proteins or nucleic acids lose the tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), or heat
primary structure
polypeptide chain
secondary structure
occurs when the amino acid folds and coils in a regular helix or pleats
tertiary structure
occurs when the helix folds irregularly, forming disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds between amino acids in the chain
quaternary structure
consists of two or more polypeptides
Categories: Microbiology