Chiral Molecules introduction

What are structural isomers?
Same molecular formula with different bonding arrangements.
What are stereoisomers?

Stereoisomers have identical molecular formulas but are not structural isomers.  The atoms are bonded in the same sequence but differ in how they are arranged in space.

(Right hand image in a mirror.)

What is the word for when organic molecules have mirror images but cannot be completely matched? (eg, hands)
Nonsuperimposable
What are chiral images?
Items that can have mirror images that are nonsuperimposable.
What is the word for when a mirror image can be superimposed on the original?
Achiral
What defines a chiral carbon compound?
When at least one carbon atom is bonded to 4 different atoms or groups.
When stereoisomers for carbon compounds can not be superimposed on each other, what do we call them?
Enantiomers
What is a Fisher projection?
The carbon chain is written vertically with the most highly oxidized carbon at the top.  Horizontal lines are bonds that project forward in a 3D structure.  Vertical lines project backward.  Each intersecton of lines is usually a chiral carbon atom.
How do we denote left handed and right handed chiral structures?
D- is the right handed stereoisomer, L- is the left handed stereoisomer.
Categories: Microbiology