Micro bmc 2

science used to classify organism is called?
Taxonomy
Population of cells derived from a single cell is called
Clone
Genetically different cells within a clone is called
Strain
Hierarchy of taxonomy

Domain

kingdom

phyllum

class

 order

 family

genus

species

Methods of classification in microbiology

Morphological ccharacteristic

differential staining

biochemical tests

serology

phase typing

flow cytometry 

The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships.
taxonomy
A taxonomic category or group, such as a phylum, order, family, genus, or species
taxon
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
phylogeny
The growing of microorganisms, tissue cells, or other living matter in a specially prepared nutrient medium
Culture
A cell, group of cells, or organism that is descended from and genetically identical to a single common ancestor, such as a bacterial colony whose members arose from a single original cell.
Clone

The study of the evolutionary history of organisms

Biology The systematic classification of organisms and the evolutionary relationships among them; taxonomy

systematics
The evolutionary development and history of a species or higher taxonomic grouping of organisms
phylogeny
Placing organisms in group of related species
Classification
Matching characteristics of an unknown organism to lists of known organisms
Identification
Method of identification for the Eukaryotes
Morphological characteristic


Method of identification using gram stain/acid fast staining

Different staining


Method of identification determining the presence of bacterial enzymes

Biochemical tests
Method of identification using serum and antigen/Immune system, antibodies
serology
Method of identification useful to trace the origin of a disease
Phage typing
Method of identification using fluorescence, selective stain, conductivity
Flow cytometry
Method of identification widely used and based on suggestive questions with possible 2 answers?
Dichotomous key
Method of identification using bacteria synthesizing fatty acid
Fatty acid and profile
Method of identification using DNA base composition, fingerprinting, nucleic acid
Genetics
is responsible for the 1st and 2nd line of defense?
Innnate immunity
is responsible for the third line of defense?
adaptive immunity
Body defense present from birth again any microorganisms
Innate Immunity
Body defense against specific microorganisms
adaptive immunity
Characteristic of innate immunity

From birth

Provide rapid response

No memory response

first and second line of defense

Characteristic of adaptive immunity?

Specific to microorganism

activate when immune response is inadequate

Slower response

Has a memory response

Third line of defense

Inner thicker portion of skin
Dermis
Outer thinner portion of skin
Epidermis
What comprise the first line of defense

Instant skin

mucous membrane

normal microbiota

Comprise the second line of defense

Phagocytes

Inflammation

Fever

Antimicrobial substance

Phase of phagocytosis

Chemotaxis

Adherence

ingerence

digestion

The most common chemical factor in the immune response is ?
______, ___________, and _____________comprise the first line of defense

Intact skin,

Mucous membrane,

 normal microbiota

1.    __________, __________, ___________, and ___________comprise the second line of defense.

Phagocytes

inflammation

fever

antimicrobial substance

 

1.    The most common chemical factor in the immune response is ____.

 

1.    The phases of phagocytosis are __________, ___________, __________, and ___________.

Chemotaxis

Adherence

ingestion

digestion

1.                      is the study of where and when diseases occur.

Epidemiology

1.                     is the study of a disease.

pathology
                 is the study of the cause of a disease
Etiology

1.                     describes a relationship between 2 organisms in which one always benefits.

Symbiosis

1.                                describes a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is unaffected.

Commensalism

1.                              describes a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed.

Parasitism

1.                          describes a relationship where both organisms benefit.

mutualism

1.                                             describes competition among microbes.

Microbial antagonist

1.    Normal micobiota protect the host by                          ,                     , and —————————–.                                                                                  

Occupying space

Producing acid

producing bacteriocies

1.    The major significance of Koch’s postulates is                                             .

microbes causes diseases
List of Koch’s postulate

1.        The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.

2.        The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture.

3.        The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal.

4.        The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism

1.    List the exceptions to Koch’s postulates.

Exceptions:

If the organism cannot be grown in the laboratory on artificial media

If the disease is caused by more than one organism

If the disease only occurs in humans

If the organism causes more than one disease

Stages of diseases

incubation

prodromal

period of illness

period of decline

period of convalescense

 

Infection that do not show any sign of incubation at time of admission;hospital based infection
Nosocomial Infection
Most common HAI infection
Urinary infection
Location of the CDC
Atlanta
Restropective study of data
Descriptive epidemiology
look for common characteristics to establish cause and effect
Analytical epidemiology
Science starting with hypothesis, followed by experiments and studies testing hypothesis?
Experimental epidemiology
portals of entry

Skin,

mucous membranes

parenteral route

Colonization of the body by pathogens
Infection
An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
Disease

normal organism in the body who does not cause disease in normal habitat in a healthy person? 

permanently colonize the host.

Normal microbiota
are members of the normal flora that are not always present or are present for only a few days, weeks, or months before disappearing
Transcient microbiota
organism that exists harmlessly as part of the normal human body environment and does not become a health threat until the body’s immune system fails
Opportunistic Pathogens
Communicable diseases vs non communicable diseases?

A communicable disease can be spead from person to person>chicken pox

 

A non-communicable disease is a disease that can not be spread from person to person>tetanus

Dev of disease
Pathogenesis
Microorganism capable of causing disease
Pathogen
Sites where pathogens enter the body
Portal of entry
Source of infection can come From the outside or the inside of the body?

Exogenous

Endogenous

Majority of pathogens have their ?

If pathogens enters the wrong portal?

Preferred portal of entry but some infectious agent can have more than one portal> Strep, staph

infection will not occur>influenza

 

Site of pathogen leaving the infected person to infect others
Portal of exit
Live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended, to excert a beneficial effect
Probiotics
A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease
Symptoms
A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
Sign
A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
Syndrome
A disease that is easily spread from one host to another
Contagious disease>Chickenpox, measles

 

Fraction of the population that contract a disease during a specific time

incidence of disease
Fraction of the population having a specific disease at a given time
Prevalence
disease that occurs occasionally in a population
Sporadic disease
Disease constantly present in a population?
Endemic disease
disease acquired by many host in a given area in a short time?
Epidemic disease
World wide epidemic
Pandemic
immunity in most of a population
herd immunity
disease symptoms develop rapidly
Acute disease
Disease develops slowly
Chronic disease
symptoms disease between acute and chronic
subacute disease
Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive
Latent disease>shingles
pathogens infection are limited to a small area?
Local infection
An infection throughout the body
Systemic infection
local infection spreading to another area of the body and remains confined
focaL infection>tonsils, sinuses
toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins from a focus of infection
sepsis
bacteria in the blood
Bacteremia
growth of bacteria in the blood
Septicemia
Toxins in the blood
toxemia
Viremia
Viruses in the blood
Acute infection causing initial illness
Primary infection
Opportunistic infection after a primary predisposing infection
Secondary infection
no noticeable signs or symptoms of disease
Subclinical disease
Making the body more susceptible to disease?
Predisposing factor
Reservoir of disease?
Continual sources of infection, aids, hiv, animal, soil, h20
Transmission of disease by?

Contact

Vehicle

Vector

Transmission of disease can be by conctact, how?

Direct

Indirect>objets

Droplet>airborne

Transmission of disease by  an inanimate reservoir
Vehicle transmission
Vector transmission can be?

mechanical>carries pathogen on feet>mosquito

 

Biological> pathogen reproduces in vector>larva

Nosocomial infection result from interaction of several factors

Microorganisms in hospital

Compromised status of the host

Chain of transmission

 

Resistance to Infection is impaired by disease, therapy or burns?
Compromised host
Common infection in hospital?
UTI

 3 main method of epidemiology investigation/

 

Descriptive

Analytical

experimental

retrospective studies of data that has accumulated  over time
Descriptive
Look for common  characteristics and other risk factors to establish cause & effect
Analytical

hypotheses about common habits, places of exposure or sources can be tested and identified?

 

Experimental
Incidence of a specific notifiable disease
Morbidity
Death from a notifiable diseases
Mortality
number of people affected in relation  to the total population in a given period
Morbidity rate
Number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time
Mortality rate
health care workers report specified disease to local, state and national offices
Case reporting
Physicians  are required to report to report occurence
Nationally notifiable diseases

 

1.    The 4 groups of bacteria are:

 

a.    ____________

 

b.   ____________

 

c.    ____________

 

d.   ____________

 

Gram Positive Cocci

    Gram Positive Bacilli

  Gram Negative Cocci

  Gram Negative Bacilli

 

1.    Staph aureus is called MRSA when the _____________ is resistant.

oxicillin

1.    ___________ ___________ ___________ refers to a group of Staphylococcus that is normally less virulent, but can be opportunistic.

coagulase,

negative

staph

1.    _________, __________, __________, __________ and ___________ are called beta hemolytic streps.

Group A

Group B

Group C

GroupD

1.    Group _______ is of concern in pregnancy.

Group B

1.    Group _______ causes strep throat.

Group A

1.    VRE stands for __________ ____________ ______________.

Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus

1.    ________________ refers to Neisseria meningitis.

meningococcus

1.    ________________ refers to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Gonococcus

1.    ________________ refers to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Pseumo coccus
Most common cause of a UTI is ____________ __________.
E coli

1.    ______________ ______________ is a problem in hot tubs, saunas, and whirlpools.

Pseudomona Aeruginosa

1.    _____________ ______________ used to be the cause of meningitis in young children.

Haemophilus influenza

1.    Pseudomembraneous colitis is caused by ___________ __________.

C diff
Categories: Microbiology