Micro buzzwords

Bacillary angiomatosis
Bartonella henselae
“Black poison”
Visceral Leishmaniasis
Blackwater fever
malaria
Blueberry muffin baby
Rubella
Break-bone fever
Dengue
Bull’s-eye rash
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi
Downey cell (atypical lymphocyte)
EBV, CMV
Eggs with lateral spine
Schistosome mansoni
Eggs with terminal spine
Schistosome haematobium
Heterophile antibody
EBV
Hypnozoite
P. vivax
Maltese cross
Babesia spp
Morula
Ehrlichia and Anaplasma
Owl’s-eye inclusion
CMV
Rabbit fever
Francella Tularemia
Rash on hands/feet spreads to trunk
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
Ring forms inside RBCs
P. falciparum:
Romana sign
T. cruzi:
Safety-pin (bipolar) staining
Yersinias pestis
Sausage-shaped gametocyte
P. falciparum:
Schuffner dots
P. vivax, P. ovale
Rash on trunk that goes outwards
R. prowazeki
Rustic log cabin
Relapsing fever: Borrelia recurrentis
Hawaii and surfing
Leptospira interrogans
Organism w/ hooked ends
Leptospira interrogans
sandfly
Leishmania Bartonella bacilliformis
Broad-based budding yeast
Blastomyces
Bull neck
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Catcher’s stance
Haemophilus influenza type B
Cherry red epiglottis
Hemophilus influenzae
Cold-agglutinin positive
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Consumption
Old name for Tuberculosis
Cottage-cheese granuloma
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Currant jelly sputum
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Dented helmets
Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP)
Downey cell
Herpes virus causing pharyngitis, Epstein-Barr virus: heterophile positive; Cytomegalovirus: heterophile negative
Farmer’s lung
Allergic aspergillosis/hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Thermophilic Actinoyces spp.; Acute damage by cytokines, type III HSR, may be type IV also
Fungal ball
Aspergillosis (aspergilloma)
Grape-like smell in culture
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Green sputum in cystic fibrosis patient
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Grows on chocolate agar, not on blood agar
Haemophilus influenza
Heterophile antibody-positive
Epstein-Barr virus
Kidney bean-shaped diplococci
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Koplik spot
Measles – paramyxovirus, negative sense, ssRNA, enveloped helical
Lancet-shaped diplococci
Streptococcus pneumonia
Many PMNs in sputum, no organisms seen
Atypical pneumonia: M. pneumonia,
Mediastinal widening
Bacillus anthracis
Nonfermenter
Acinetobater, Bordatella, Burkholderia, Legionella, Moraxella, Pseudomonas
Owl’s eye inclusion
CMV: heterophile negative
Parrot fever
Chlamydophila psittaci
Pilot’s wheel
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Rabbit fever
Francisella tularensis, buffered charcoal yeast agar, cysteine glucose blood agar
Rust-colored sputum
Streptococcus pneumonia, Paragonimus westermani (lung fluke) – sputum will also have parasitic eggs
Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Ixodes ticks
Babesia microti
Black legged tick (Ixodes tick)
Borrelia burgdorferi
•Vector: tick: Ixodes scapularis
Dengue virus
•Vector: Aedes mosquito.
Loa loa
Chrysops fly
Onchocerca volvulus
Female blackflies
Plasmodium species
Mosquito (Anopheles)
Rickettsia prowazekii
•Vector: human body louse and fleas
Rickettsia rickettsii
•Vector: Rocky mounted wood tick (D. andersoni)
Trypanosoma brucei
Tsetse fly
Trypanosoma cruzi
Vector: reduviid (triatomine) bugs, aka kissing-bug
West Nile virus
Mosquito
Yellow fever virus
•Vector Aedis aegypti mosquito
Yersinia pestis
Flea transmit it to prairie dogs and rodents
Bartonella bacilliformis
Sandfly
Borrelia recurrentis
Human body louse
Brugia malayi
mosquito
Chikungunya virus
Aedes mosquito
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
ticks
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Vector: black legged deer tick
Francisella tularensis
Rabbits
Japanese encephalitis virus
Mosquito
Leishmania braziliensis
Sandfly
Leishmania donovani
Sandfly
Orientia tsutsugamushi
•Vector: mite (chigger)
Rickettsia akari
•Vector: mites
Rickettsia typhi
Vector flea
Rift Valley fever
mosquitos
St. Louis encephalitis virus
•Vector: Culex mosquito
Wuchereria bancrofti
mosquito
Bartonella quintana
•Vector: body louse (humans in over crowded situations)
Acid fast oocyst
Cryptosporidiosis (C. parvum), Cyclospora cayetanensis (NOT common)
Elliptical Acid fast oocyst
Isospora belli
Barrel shaped (football shaped) eggs with plugged ends
Whipworm: Trichuris trichiura
Beaver fever
Giardia lamblia
Black vomit
Yellow fever
Chronic diarrhea in AIDS patient
Cryptosporidiosis (C. parvum)
Clay pipestem fibrosis
S. mansoni
Colorless colonies on SMAC agar
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)
Constipation
S. typhi,, Clostridium botulinum
Cysticercosis
Pork Tapeworm: Taenia solium
Dane particle
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
Flask-shaped lesions
Entamoeba histolytic
Floppy baby syndrome
Clostridium botulinum
Gastric cancer
Helicobacter pylori
Growth at 4oC
Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica
Growth at 42oC
Campylobacter jejuni
HUS
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Shigella
Hydatid cyst disease
Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis
Malabsorption syndrome
Tropheryma whippelii, Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli, Giant Intestinal Fluke: Fasciolopsis buski
Petting zoos
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)
Pseudoappendicitis
Yersinia enterocolitica
Megaloblastic anemia
Fish Tapeworm: Diphyllobothrium latum
Montezuma’s revenge
Enteroinvasive E. coli (ETEC)
Operculum
Cestodes: Tapeworms, Trematodes: Fluke
Oval-shaped eggs with lateral spine
Schistosome mansoni
Proglottids
Cestodes: Tapeworms
Pseudomembranous colitis
Clostridium difficile
Rectal prolapse
Whipworm: Trichuris trichiura
Rice water diarrhea
Vibrio cholerae
Rose spots
Typhoidal Salmonella
Seagull wings
Campylobacter jejuni
Scotch tape prep
Pinworm: Enterobius vermicularis
Sushi worm
Anisakiasis: Anisakis simplex
Whipple disease
Tropheryma whipplei.
Reptiles: turtles (snakes, lizards)
Non-typhoidal Salmonella
Gas gangrene. Bronze colored blisters
Clostridium perfringens
“Falling leaf motility”
Giardia lamblia
Bilobed nucles
Giardia lamblia
knobby-coated, oval-shaped, bile-stained Eggs
Roundworm: Ascaris lumbricoides
Broad-based budding yeast
Blastomyces dermatitidis
CAMP-positive
Group B strep or listeria
Cold selection
Listeria monocytogenes
Encapsulated yeast
Cryptococcus neoformans
Floppy baby
C. botulinum
Grows on chocolate agar, not on blood agar
Haemophilus
Home canning
C. botulinum
India ink stain
Cryptococcus neoformans
K1 capsular antigen
E. coli
Kidney-bean shaped diplococci
N. meningitidis
Koplik spots
Rubeola virus
Lancet-shaped diplococci
pneumococcal
Negri body
Rabies virus
Neurocysticercosis
Taenia solium
Owl’s-eye inclusion
CMV
Pink eye
Adenovirus
Positive VDRL/RPR test
Neurosyphilis
Ring-enhancing lesions
Toxoplasmosis
Sausage-shaped gametocyte
P. falciparum
Spherule
Coccidioides immitis
Temporal lobe encephalitis
HSV
Tzank smear
HSV
Waterhouse-Friedrichsen
N. meningitidis
Weakly acid fast branching rods
Nocardia
Eggs with terminal spine
S. haematobium
Germ tubes
Candida albicans
Honeymoon cystitis
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
“Lumpy, bumpy” staining
Deposits of IgG along GBM
Pap-pili
E. coli
Swarming
Proteus mirabilis
Uncomplicated hematuria in young boy
Adenovirus
Beefy red ulcers
Klebsiella granulomatis
Clue cell
Bacterial vaginosis
Condylomata lata
Secondary syphilis (treponema pallidum)
Copper-colored rash
Secondary syphilis (treponema pallidum)
Cottage cheese discharge
Vulvovaginal candidiasis
Dew drops on a rose petal
Herpesviridae
Donovan bodies
Klebsiella granulomatis
Frothy, yellowish-green discharge
Trichomoniasis
Germ tubes
Candida dubliniensis
Hutchinson teeth (notched incisors)
Congenital syphilis (treponema pallidum)
Growth on chocolate, not on blood
Neisseria gonorrheae
Kidney-bean shaped diplococci
Neisseria gonorrheae
Koilocyte
Papovaviruses
Many PMNs, no organisms on Gram stain
Chlamydia trachomatis
Mulberry molars
Congenital syphilis (treponema pallidum)
Saber shins
Congenital syphilis (treponema pallidum)
Saddle nose
Congenital syphilis (treponema pallidum)
School of fish
Hemophilus ducrey
Snuffles
Congenital syphilis (treponema pallidum)
Strawberry cervix
Trichomoniasis
Thin, gray adherent discharge
Bacterial vaginosis
Tzank smear
Herpesviridae
Whiff test
Bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis
Adenovirus, type of vaccine
Live attenuated
Bacillus anthracis, type of vaccine
Killed
Bordetella pertussis, type of vaccine
Killed, acellular
Clostridium tetani, type of vaccine
Toxoid
Corynebacterium diphtheriae, type of vaccine
Toxoid
Haemophilus influenzae, type of vaccine
Conjugated
Hepatitis A virus, type of vaccine
Killed
Hepatitis B virus, type of vaccine
Recombinant
Human Papilloma virus, type of vaccine
Recombinant (6,11,16,18)
Influenza virus, type of vaccine
Killed
Measles virus, type of vaccine
Live, attenuated
Mumps virus, type of vaccine
Live, attenuated
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, type of vaccine
Live, attenuated
Neisseria meningitidis, type of vaccine
Conjugated and polysaccharide but mostly conjugated
Poliovirus, type of vaccine
Sabin – live, attenuated, Salk – killed
Rabies virus, type of vaccine
Killed
Rotavirus, type of vaccine
Live, attenuated
Rubella virus, type of vaccine
Live, attenuated
Smallpox, type of vaccine
Live, attenuated
Streptococcus pneumoniae, type of vaccine
Polysaccharide vaccine with no conjugated protein (capsule)
Varicella Zoster virus, type of vaccine
Live, attenuated
Yellow fever virus, type of vaccine
Live, attenuated
Japanese encephalitis virus, type of vaccine
Inactivated
Rickettsia prowazekii, type of vaccine
Killed
Salmonella typhi, type of vaccine
Typhoid
Tick-borne encephalitis virus, type of vaccine
Inactivated
Vibrio cholera, type of vaccine
Killed, inactivated whole cell
Yersinia pestis, type of vaccine
Live
Bacillary angiomatosis
Bartonella Hensalae
Bipolar staining Gram-negative rod
Pasturella Multocida
Broad-based budding yeast
Blastomyces
Bull’s-eye rash
Borrelia Burgdophia
Butterfly facial rash
Erysipelas
Copper-colored rash
Syphilis
Dewdrops on a rose petal
Herpes Simplex
Fifth disease
Parvovirus B19
Fish tank granuloma
Mycobacterium marinum
Flesh-eating bacteria
Step Pyogenes or Staph Aureus
Honey-crusted lesions
Staph Aureus or Step Pyogenes
Hot tub folliculitis
Pseudomonas
Koplik spots
Measles = Paramyxovirus Infection
Lacy body rash
HHV-6
Papular/pustular rash with different stages
Chickenpox – VZV
Pustular rash all in same stage
Smallpox – variola major and minor
Rash on hands/feet spreads to trunk
Rickettsia Rickettsiae
Rash starts behind ears, spreads down body
German Measles = Toga virus
Romana sign
Chagas…this is the Chigoma on the face
Rose gardener disease
Sporothryix
Sandpaper rash
Scarlet Fever = Strep Progenes
Slapped cheek fever
B19 Parvovirus
Spaghetti and meatballs
Pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia furfur = asexual form
Tzank smear
Herpes Infection
Wool-sorter disease
Bacillus Antracis = Anthrax
B cell lymphoma
EBV
Blackwater fever
P. falciparum
Bladder Cancer
Schistosomes
Burkitt lymphoma
EBV
Cervical cancer
HPV
Colon cancer
Streptococcus bovis
Floppy baby syndrome
C. botulinum
Gastric adenocarcinoma
H. pylori
Gastric MALT B-cell lymphomas
H. pylori
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Campylobacter jejuni
Hairy oral leukoplakia
EBV
Hemolytic uremic syndrome
E. coli O157
Hyperinfection syndrome
Strongyloides stercoralis
Kaposi sarcoma
HIV
Katayama syndrome
Schistosomes
Malabsorption syndrome
G. lamblia
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
EBV
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatitis C and B
Reactive arthritis
Chlamydia, C. jejuni, salmonella, shigella, yersinia
Reiter syndrome
Chlamydia
Waterhouse-Friedrichsen syndrome
N. meningitidis
Weil disease
Leptospirosis
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease
EBV
Bile esculin agar
Group D streptococci
Blood agar: a-hemolytic
Strep. Pneumo, strep viridans
Blood agar: b-hemolytic
Strep. Pyogenes
Blood agar: g-hemolytic
Group D strep
Blood agar: CAMP positive
Group B strep or listeria
Bordet-Gengou agar
Bordetella pertussis
Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar
Legionella
Chocolate agar
Haemophilus and Neisseria
Lowenstein-Jensen agar
M. tuberculosis
MacConkey agar
Gram – bacteria that ferment lactose
Regan-Lowe media
Bordetella pertussis
Sabouraud dextrose agar
Fungi
Sorbitol MacConkey agar
E. coli O157
Thayer-Martin agar
Neisseria spp.
Thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar
Vibrio spp.
Eaton medium
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Egg yolk agar
Clostridium
Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar
Gram (-) enteric bacilli
Hektoen enteric agar
Shigella and salmonella
Loeffler media
Diphtheria bacilli
Mannitol salt agar
Staphylococci
Tellurite media
Diphtheria bacilli
Thioglycolate broth
Determines level of O2 requirement
Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) agar
Differentiate enterics based on reducing sulfur and fermenting carbohydrates
Xylose-Lysine-Deoxycholate (XLD) agar
Salmonella and shigella
Warthin Starry stain
Bartonella Hensalae
CD3
T cell
CD5
T cell, B cell, Expressed in: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, Expressed on CLL
CD8
CTL, Uses: Quantify cytotoxic T cells (Tc), Def in: Familial CD8 deficiency;
CD14
Macrophase, TLR for LPS
CD19
Pre B cells, mature B cells, follicular DC, Signal transducer on B cells. Expressed on CLL
CD20
Pre B Cells, Mature B cells, Chain of the CR2 co-receptor. Expressed on CLL
CD21
B cell (EBV receptor) ; , Follicular DC, Receptor for complement component C3d; part of Bcell coreceptor w/ CD19
CD28
T cells; Co-receptor on T cells that binds B7
CD34
Hematopoietic stem cells
CD40L (CD154)
T cells. Def in Hyper IgM syndrome
CD56
NK cells
CD61
Platelets (glycoprotein IIIa)
CD86 (B7.2)
Cell distribution: B cells, monocytes. Function: Regulates T cell activation. Clinical use/notes: Ligand for CD 28 and CD152
CD80 (B7.1)
Subset of B cells. Function: Regulates T cell activation. Clinical use/notes: Ligand for CD28 and CD152
CD40
B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells. Function: Promotes isotype switching. Clinical use/notes: Binds CD 154; co-receptor on B cells
CD16
NK cells, macrophages, PMN, Function: Fc?R; phagocytosis; ADCC, Uses: Quantify NK cells
CD4
T helper cells, Function: Co-receptor for MHC II, Uses: Quantify Th cells, receptor for HIV
Virulence factor and MOA for: Acute glomerulonephritis (GABHS- M12 strains)
Virulence factor: M protein, MOA: Disruption of complement binding to immune complex (disrupts c3b)a decreases removal of complex
Virulence factor and MOA for: Botulism
Botulinum toxins: Affect peripheral cholinergic synapses by blocking the NMJ and inhibiting the release of NT (AcH) aprevents contraction/flaccid paralysis
Virulence factor and MOA for: Cholera
Cholera toxin (heat labile): Permanently activates Gs –> increases cAMP
Virulence factor and MOA for: Diphtheria
Diphtheria toxin (heat labile): Inactivates EFaInhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis
Virulence factor and MOA for: Escherichia coli meningitis
K1 (capsular) antigen; Antiphagocytic
Virulence factor and MOA for: Escherichia coli UTI
Pili: Adherence to urethral mucosa
Virulence factor and MOA for: Gas gangrene
Alpha-toxin (lecithinase ): Breaks down lipids in cell membranes –> cell death
Virulence factor and MOA for: Gonorrhea
Pili (antigenic): Enhance attachment to host epithelium and mucosal surfaces. Antigen shuffling allow variation of pili over time
Virulence factor and MOA for: Gram-negative septic shock
LPS; Increased immune response –> cytokine storm
Virulence factor and MOA for: Klebsiella pneumoniae
Capsule: antiphagocytic
Virulence factor and MOA for: Pneumococcal pneumonia/meningitis
Capsule: Antiphagocytic
Virulence factor and MOA for: Peptic ulcers (H. Pylori)
Urease: Cleaves urea a Produces ammonia ions (NH3) that neutralize stomach acid in the vicinity of the organism. MOA: Cleaves urea a Produces ammonia ions (NH3) that neutralize stomach acid in the vicinity of the organism
Virulence factor and MOA for: Pseudomonal pneumonia
Capsule: Antiphagocytic
Virulence factor and MOA for: Pseudomonal wound infection
Pseudimonal toxin: Similar to diphtheria toxin (interferes with EF2)
Virulence factor and MOA for: Rheumatic fever (GABHS)
M protein: Body makes Ab against strep but they happen to cross react and bind to the heart tissue
Virulence factor and MOA for: Scalded skin syndrome
Exfoliative toxin (ET): Superantigen that attacks the intercellular adhesive of the stratum granulosumamarked epithelial desquamation
Virulence factor and MOA for: Scarlet fever
Erythrogenic toxin (acquired this toxin by lysogeny – bacterial phage (virus that infects bacteria)). Responsible for fever and rash
Virulence factor and MOA for: Staphylococcal food poisoning (aur)
enterotoxin; Induces cAMP
Virulence factor and MOA for: Strep throat
M protein; antiphagocytic
Virulence factor and MOA for: Tetanus
Virulence factor: Tetanus toxin (tetanospasmin). MOA of toxin: Very potent. Stops release of NT GABA, glycine and excitatory NTadangerous overactivity in mm from smallest stimuli
Toxic shock syndrome (S. Aureus)
Virulence factor: Superantigen exotoxin. MOA of Toxin has affinity for the T cell receptor/MHC Class 2 antigen complex a stimulates an enhanced T lymphocyte responseaT cell activation causes large amount of T cell cytokine release a TSS
Virulence factor and MOA for: Whooping cough (B. Pertussis)
Virulence factor: Pertussis Toxin (PT). MOA Catalyzes the ADP ribosylation of the alpha-I subunit of the G protein a inactivates Gi a increases cAMP
Virulence factor and MOA for: Meningococcal meningitis
1. polysaccharide capsule (only in N. Meningitis NOT GC): antiphagocytic. 13 serogroups (A,B,C,Y, W135 most common). We don’t have a vaccine for B so you can get meningitis even with the vaccine. 2. LOS- lipooligosaccharide (no O antigen) – endotoxin: causes immune response (cytokine storm). 3. Pili: Attachment to nasopharyngeal mucosa
Virulence factor and MOA for: Tuberculosis
Facultative intracellular Virulence dependent on ability to survive and grow in host cells. Makes no toxins but when engulfed by macrophages, bacterial sulfolipids inhibit the fusion of phagocytic vesicles with lysosomes. MOA Inhibits fusion of phagosome/lysosome.
Virulence factor and MOA for: Traveler’s diarrhea (ETEC)
Enterotoxins: 1. Heat stabile toxin (ST) –> causes increase in cellular cGMP. 2. Heat labile toxin (LT)- essentially identical to cholera toxin which –> causes increase in cellular cAMP MOA: Prolonged hypersecretion of chloride ions and water by the intestinal mucosal cells and inhibits the reabsorption of Naahyperosmotic diarrhea
Virulence factor and MOA for: Shigellosis
1. Shiga toxin: inhibit protein synthesis by interfering with 60s (like EHEC). 2. Invasion of intestinal mucosa via actin polymerization –. Propel themselves
Virulence factor and MOA for: Pseudomembranous colitis
2 toxic polypeptides: 1. enterotoxin A: damages mucosa. 2. Cytotoxin B: kills the cells
Virulence factor and MOA for: Meningococcal septic shock , (N. Meningitis)
LOS: Increased immune response –> cytokine storm
Virulence factor and MOA for: Listeriosis
1. Facultative intracellular: Escapes phagosome before lysosome/phagosome fusion. 2. Listeriolysin O hemolysin: Lyses phagocytic vacuoles/damages membranes
Virulence factor and MOA for: Anthrax (B. Anthracis)
Virulence factors are: 1. Anthrax Toxin has both (A) – LF — lethal factor and — EF — edema factor as well as (B) – PA – protective Ag 2. Glutamic acid Capsule MOA of Virulence factor 1: anthrax toxin – increases intracellular cAMP –> severe edema (widened mediastinum, etc. ). MOA of virulence factor 2: antiphagocytic
Virulence factor and MOA for: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (0157:H7)- EHEC
Shiga-like toxin (Verotoxin ): Inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with 60s ribosomes (like Shigella toxin)
Virulence factor and MOA for: Bacillus cereus food poisoning
Virulence factors: 1. Emetic Heat Stabile enterotoxin and 2. Diarrheal Enterotoxin (heat labile). MOA for VF’s: 1. causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, 2. increases cAMP
Categories: Microbiology