Pathophysiology Cellular Function

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pathophysiology
the study of the disorder or breakdown of the human body function
health
may be considered the absence of disease
disease
occurs when there is a disruption in homeostasis or deviation from normal
homeostasis
a dynamic process that establishes equilibrium. it is self-regulating, compensatory. trying to establish a balance
negative feedback
feedback that is established when something is taken away or lowered. ex. temperature regulation
etiology
the cause of the disease
idiopathic
the unknown cause or reason for the event
iatrogenic
unintended effect of a medical treatment
pathogenesis
the development and evolution of a disease, affected by time, quantity, location
insidious
gradual onset
acute disease
a disease that occurs and resolves quickly
chronic disease
often has less notable signs and occurs over a longer period of time
remission
occurs the manifestations of a disease subside
exacerbation
occurs when the manifestation of a disease increases again
prognosis
the likelihood an individual will fully recover
complications
new problems that arise due to a disease
clinical manifestations
includes signs and symptoms of the disease, stages of the disease, acute vs. chronic
epidemiology
patterns of diseases in a group of people
epidemic
increasing disease numbers within a group
pandemic
when an epidemic expands to a larger population
primary prevention
patient does not have the disease, you are trying to prevent it. ex. healthy eating, exercise, vaccines
secondary prevention
disease detection, ex. pap smears, physicals
tertiary prevention
trying to prevent problems from the disease or problem. ex. rehabilitation, getting disease symptoms under control
nucleus
control center of the cell, at least one of these per cell, contains chromatin and the nucleolus, genetic code and nucleoli
cytoplasm
place were the organelles are located, contains water electrolytes, suspended protein, neutral fats, glycogen
ribosomes
site for protein synthesis, small particles of neucloproteins, may be attached to the ER or free
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
place were metabolic activity occurs, two forms: rough and smooth
Rough ER
produce proteins for membranes and lysosomal enzymes
smooth ER
lipids, liproprotein, and steroid synthesis, regulation of intracellular Ca, metabolism and detoxification of hormones and drugs
golgi apparatus
site for carbohydrate production
lysosomes
breakdown cell products and foreign bodies, requires acidic environment
peroxisomes
control free radicals
mitochondria
power plant of the cell, creates ATP, contains its own DNA and ribosomes
cilia and flagella
hair like processes, aid in movement
centrioles
barrel-shaped bodies, aid in chromosome division
microfilament
threadlike structure
cell membrane
semi-permeable, lipid bilayer, involved in electrical conduction
passive transport
diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
diffusion
movement of solutes from higher concentration to lower concentration
osmosis
movement from low solutes to higher solute- till concentration is equal
facilitated diffusion
low concentration to higher concentration will need assistance of a carrier molecule
endocytosis
bringing in
pinocytosis
cell drinking
exocytosis
letting out
phagocytosis
cell eating
cell proliferation
process by which cells divide and reproduce
mitosis
cell divides itself in half, most common type of proliferation
meiosis
proliferation that occurs in mature sperm and ova
atrophy
decrease in the size of the organelles, less energy is used, increased efficiency or decrease functionality in disease state
hypertrophy
increase workload, increase in size and numbers or organelles, increase intractability, increase inability to meet demands of decrease
hyperplasia
increase in tissues size by increase in number of cells, increase functionality, compensatory- compensating for some problem, hormonal
metaplasia
normal cells are replaced by abnormal shape and size
apoptosis
programmed cell death
ischemia
decreased blood flow to tissue or organ
necrosis
cells swell and burst causing cell death
free radical
unstable agents that cause cell death
coagulative cell death
interruption of blood flow that causes acidosis, glatinous, transparent protein, ex. clotting
liquefactive cell death
walled off liquid goo
caseous cell death
nectrotic cell die off but waste still occurs, ex. maycobacterium tuberculosis, looks like cottage cheese
fatty cell death
opaque and chalky, soapy cell death
neoplasia
new growth, lacks normal control and regulation
oncogenes
genes that promote cancer development
carcinogens
things in the environment that promote cancer development
Change in bowel or bladder habits, A sore that doesn’t heal, unusual bleeding or discharge, Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere, Indigestion of difficulty swallowing, Obvious change in a wart or mole, Nagging coughing or hoarseness
what does CAUTION stand for
karyotype
representation of a person’s individual set of chromosomes
phenotype
the physical expression of the genes
homozygous
identical variants of chromosomes
heterozygous
alleles look different
dominant
more influential genes
recessive
less influential genes
autosomal dominant disorders
transmitted from affected parent regardless of child’s gender, 50% chance of transmission, delayed onset ex. Marfan and Neurofibromatosis
autosomal recessive disorders
both members of the gene pair have to be affected to pass on the gene, affects both genders,1 out of 4 will be affected, 2/4 will be carriers, early onset, deficeincy of enzymes, (ex. PKU and Tay-Sachs)
X-linked disorders
males have 50% of getting disorder because they have only one X chromosome, females have 50% of being carriers, all daughters of affected males will be carriers ex. fragile X-syndrome
multifactorial inheritane disorders
results from an interaction between the environment and genetic factors, less predictable and very common ex. cleft lip or palate, clubfoot, congenital dislocation of hips, cancer, psychiatric disorders, heart defects
chromosomal disorders
abnormality in chromosomal number, accounts for most spontaneous abortions, 60 syndromes
Categories: Pathophysiology