Ch. 16: Organizational Change & Change Management

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old state –> unfreeze–> change–>refreeze–> new state
Lewin’s Process of Org Structure:
stage in Lewin’s procces by which ppl become aware of the need for change
stage in Lewin’s process where making new behaviors relatively permanent & resistant to further change
change agent
– a person responsible for managing a change effort
– undertakes the task of introducing & managing a change
– build relationships within leadership team, team & org members, team & key environmental players
transition management
– the process of systematically planning, organizing, and implementing change
– there will always be unpredictable things that happen along the way & this ensure that business continues while change occurs
– people
– tech
– info processing & comm
– competition
forces for change:
Lewin’s Process Model
model which illustrates that planned org change requires systematic process of movement from 1 condition to the next
change or “moving”
– stage in Lewin’s process where you move from the old way of doing things to the new way
– new attitudes, values, behaviors are substituted for old ones
Continuous Change Process Model
– approach that treats planned change from the perspective of top management & indicates that change is continuous
– expected that after change, org will be better off
1. forces for change
2. recognize & define problem
3. problem solving process
4. implement change
5. measure, evaluate, control
steps in continuous change process model:
– nature of work (diverse)
– economic shock
– social trends
– world politic
additional forces for change (PP):
– new products, services, competitors
– new tech
– gov regulations/laws
– demographic changes
– marco econ changes
– politcal changes
types of unplanned changes:
– changes in products/services
– structural changes
– training/development programs
– diversity programs
– strategic changes (moving to new market)
5 types of planned changes:
just bc a change is planned doesn’t mean it’s not
incremental change
– change of a relatively small scope
– making small improvements
– relatively easy
– day to day
strategic change
– change of a larger scale like org reconstruction
– difficult
transformational change
– change in which org moves at a radically different & sometimes unknown future state
– most difficult
– dramatic/largest change
the only thing that’s permanent is
term used when orgs try to stay the way they are
– identifying problems
– diagnosing
– planning & implementing change
– evaluating & institutionalizing change
general model for planned change:
identifying and diagnosing change
biggest issues for top management when it comes to change is
– establish a sense of urgency
– form a powerful guiding coalition
– create a vision
– communicate the vision
– empower others to act on the vision
– plan for & create S/T wins
– consolidate improvements
– institutionalize new approaches
John Kotter believes that in order to implement change you should
– know history, political system, culture
– must live w/ results of change so they move carefully
adv of internal change agents:
– may be accused of favoritism
– may not be objective bc they’re too close to the situation
– may find it difficult to make changes
disadv of internal change agents:
– outsider’s objective view
– impartiality
adv of external change agents:
– limited knowledge of org’s history
– may be viewed w/ suspicion
disadv of external change agents:
– recommendations should relate to diagnosis
– ST & LT actions & outcomes should be addressed
– accept needs for political actions
– be prepared for ripple effects
– recognize contingencies/prepare alternatives
– you can’t prepare for everything
6 issues w/ action plans:
1.) vision
2.) skills
3.) incentives
4.) resources
5.) action plan
5 components org needs in order to have a successful org change:
no change
false starts
without a vision there’s
without skills there’s
without incentives there’s
without resources there’s
without an action plan there’s
if there is no pain, there is no change
Cotton’s 3rd C:
– selective info processing
– fear of the unknown
– economic factors
– habit
– security
5 sources of individual resistance to change:
– threat to est resource allocations
– threat to est power relationships
– threat to expense
– structural inertia
– limited focus of change
– group inertia
sources of org resistance to change:
– logical, rational reason
– psych, emotional reson
– politcal reason
sources of resistance to change:
– lack of time, extra effort to change
– economic cost of change
– questions about tech feasibility
logical, rational reasons to resist change:
– fear of unknown, low tolerance for change
– lack of trust in others, loss of control
– dislike of management/change agent
psych reasons to resist change:
– vested interests, loss of influence
– opposing debt/group views
– concerns about future influence
political reasons to resist change:
if you don’t want to get down and dirty, org change isn’t for you
Cotton’s 8th C:
– edu & comm
– participation
– facilitation & suport
– negotiation & rewards
– manipulation & co-optation
– coercion
overcoming resistance:
– managers welcome change; it’s only workers who resist
– problems are largely centered around job security
– good managers are able to plan change down to detail
– effective change is linear
– the best guarantee of success is a good idea
5 myths about change:
Categories: Change Management