Change management

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What is change management?
Brown (2011) “Change is the name of the game in manaement today.”
Why do people resist change?
Armstrong (2012) states that people resist change for a variety of different reasons, and they feel that the proposed change is asking them to do more for less.
List 3 change management models
Lewin’s 1951 change management process model Kotter 8-step change model
What is planned change?
Planned change is carried out by operations managers also known and change agents – it is a process used to improve the overall organisation as well as minimising performance gaps.
What does the unfreeze stage mean?
Recognising the need for change such as:
Decline in sales
Decline in visitor numbers
Poor service quality
Overtaken by competitors
(Most stressful stage)
What does the change stage mean?
Implementing the change
Ensuring that everyone understands the change
New behaviours and attitudes
Takes TIME
What does the refreeze stage mean?
Was the change successful
Is the change used in everyday actions
Has the service quality improved
Have visitor number increased
Have sales increased
Are employees happy with the new changes
Why are people resistant to change?
Shock of the new – job security
Threats – other employees
Fear – loss of job/can’t keep up with change
Uncertainty – change may not work
Stress – leads to unhappy employees
How to deal with resistance
Education and communication – teach and communicate employees about the change.
Participation – allow employees to get involved.
Facilitation and support – support those who are uncertain about the change.
Negotiation and agreement – offer incentives so employees don’t block the change.
Manipulation – use when other tactics do not work.
Coercion – resisters are threatened (loss of job)
Culture change
It is important to recognise the history and culture of an organisation so that the right changes are implemented
Evaluate the changes success
Has the service quality improved
Staff turnover decreased
Increase in visitor numbers
Maintains a competitive advantage
Measure key performance indicators
Communicate it’s success to the whole organisation
Feedback – from employees and customers
Why do organisations have to change?
Competitive behaviours – are competitors providing the same/worse/better products and services
Customer expectations – customers want as much as they can from the organisation
Development of information technology – organisation needs to ensure that it has the latest technology
Maximise shareholder values
Proactive or reactive – organisation needs to be proactive in terms of brining in new procedures
External factors of change…
Refers to change that is happening outside of the organisation but is still affecting the way the organisation operates such as customers, competitors and the economy
Internal factors affecting change…
Refers to change that is happening within the organisation that has an impact on employee behaviour
Proactive or Reactive
It is important that organisations within tourism are proactive in terms of thinking about the future and bringing in new ideas
Categories: Change Management