Change Management WGU C721

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Five elements that support management’s effective attainment of organizational goals
planning, organizing, directing, controlling resources, and staffing
Define Management
the process of working with and through people to achieve organizational goals
2 essential pieces in organizations that must be integrated effectively to lead to high performance.
Management and Leadership
What are the traits of an effective change leader?
They define themselves as a change leader, embrace risk instead of being adverse to risk as part of the change process
Organizational Development
the practice of changing people and organizations for positive growth
Change Management
encompasses approaches used by business content and behavioral process specialists that assist leaders in moving organizations from a present to future state
Systems Theory
organizations are viewed as a total system of interdependent subsystems with individual components that include people, technology, work, and culture all of which work together to respond to external environmental changes such as competitors, customers, or government regulations
Contingency theory
viewing organizational dimensions (strategy, structure, people, work, rewards) as parts of a whole that fit together. When one of these dimensions is out of sync with the others, issues emerge
Long-Term Approach
focuses on lasting effects through changes in cultural norms including interventions and alter attitudes, behaviors, processes, knowledge, and structures
Top-down approach
seeks to gain top management commitment and involvement in order to significantly affect intended changes. Implemented throughout the organization.
Collaborative approach (pg 12)
involving professionals who are affected by changes and who support the changes to the organization
Analytical Approach
examines data, diagnoses present problems, and motivates change to resolve issues. Accurate diagnostic skills are a core competency of OD change agents
Facilitation approach
uses skilled dialogue and discussion, listening, feedback when assisting professionals to identify weaknesses and strengths of the organization: planning for change; managing the change process; and implementing, coaching, and problem solving during the change
Design approach
helps leaders and managers to develop meaningful work climates where organizational members can accomplish their goals in a healthy way
What constitutes an internal change?
Changes to an organizations operating system
A formal subsystem consists of: (8 terms)
leadership, strategy, management, goals, marketing, operations, technology, and structure
Type 1 error
happens when the environment is actually stable, but the leaders and mangers perceive it as turbulent and proceed to take unneeded actions to respond
Type 2 error
happens when leaders and managers perceive the environment as stable when in actuality it is turbulent and they fail to take the necessary actions thus threatening the survival of the organization
Developmental change
involves an improvement of what already exists
Transitional change
consists of an implementation to achieve a known desired state that is different from the existing one. Ex. Installing a new technology system
Transformational change
involves the emergence of a new, unknown state for the organization. Ex. Changing the entire structure and culture of an organization
Dunphy and Stace’s Model four levels of change: Level 1
Fine-Tuning- This type of change involves an ongoing process of matching and fitting an organization’s strategy, structure, and processes with the environment. Ex. Commitment to the organization’s mission and departments
Dunphy and Stace’s Model four levels of change: Level 2
Incremental Adjustment: Incremental adjustments are predictable changes that evolve slowly and systematically at a constant rate over time within the organization to fit the external environment. Ex. Modifying a mission statement
Dunphy and Stace’s Model four levels of change: Level 3
Modular transformation: Organizational change is radical in this type of change but is focused on subparts rather than on the entire organization. For example: restructuring departments, changes in key executives responsibilities, introducing new processes. Related to transitional change
Dunphy and Stace’s Model four levels of change: Level 4
Corporate transformation: This type of change, like transformational change in previous model, involves an radical shift in the business strategy and changes in the vision, mission, culture, and systems. There is outside recruitment of new executives. Most, if not all, of the internal systems and dimensions of an organization are affected
Balogun and Hope-Hailey’s Model
Horizontal Axis
End Result:
Transformation and Realignment
Balogun and Hope-Hailey’s Model
Vertical Axis
Nature of Change:
Incremental and Big Bang
Balogun and Hope-Hailey’s Model’s Four Strategies:
when the change is incremental but transformation is the result. This strategy suggests proceeding in a progressive way by also analyzing both the internal and external environments while implementing the change
Balogun and Hope-Hailey’s Model’s Four Strategies:
When the change is also incremental and the end result is realignment. This is the least intrusive impact on the organization and the most commonly used
Balogun and Hope-Hailey’s Model’s Four Strategies:
When the change is big bang and transformational. An example might be a company that is bought by another parent firm and the new owner requests the present leaders and managers to change the vision and mission and the replace a majority of the workforce
Balogun and Hope-Hailey’s Model’s Four Strategies:
When the change is big bang combined with realignment. The organization may experience turmoil as in a turnaround or large expansion, and the basic business model may remain intact
Proactive response
Proactive change involves actively attempting to make alterations to the workplace and its practices. Companies that take a proactive approach to change are often trying to avoid a potential future threat or to capitalize on a potential future opportunity
Reactive response
Reactive change occurs when an organization makes changes in its practices after some threat or opportunity has already occurred
Tichy’s Model
Tichy’s framework explains change from a combination of external forces (political, technical, and cultural) that affect internal organizational systems
Tichy’s Change forces
technical system, political system, and cultural system
Tichy’s Managerial areas
mission, vision, and strategy; organizational dimensions: structure and systems; and human resource management system
Contingency Alignment Framework
Related to the open-systems, based approach and also similar to Tichy’s model. Another main difference in this framework is that the internal organizational dimensions (vision and strategy, structure, people, measurement systems, nature of work, culture, and technology) all should fit and work together to add value and synergy to both the input and output of the organization
The Stakeholder Approach
has the capacity to enable users to identify groups, their ‘ethics” and how each affects and is affected by an organization’s change. Originated as a strategic management approach to address the “principle of who or what really counts”
Open-systems model of change
Input provides resources for organizational functions, the structures and processes that define an organization’s operations, and to be successful the premise organizations must obtain scarce or valued resources internally and effectively integrate and increase their value.
Open-systems model of change
Output is the result of the input and throughput processes in the form of creating more value for services and/or products.
Open-systems model of change
Throughput is the middle process that is the part used by leadership to transform the strategy, structure, systems, ad culture to an eventual output.
Agile organization
More responsive than they are predictive, with an emphasis on effective communication and empowered employees, and they have flatter organizational structures
Agile Organizations
can quickly adapt and respond to new situations, whether these are opportunities or threats, because change is already central to their culture and practices. Value experimentation and communication along with decentralized decision making and modularity. Success depends on the people involved and their personal levels of comfort with change
What should organizations emphasize to adapt to continuous change? (4 terms)
Innovation, creativity, agility, and learning
Examples of hard dimensions of change
Strategies, structures, and systems
Examples of soft dimensions of change
Motivating and developing people to a high level
How do employees become change agents
Networking laterally and working in teams across divisions
Two traditional methods of managing
Command and control
Learning Organizations
take a “big picture” reflective approach to succeed. Where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together. Evolves at individual and holistic levels.
Survival Learning
also referred to as adaptive learning, and uses past successes as a basis in developing future strategies and successes
Organizational Learning Levels:
Individual, Group or Team, Organizational
Organizational Learning Levels
Individual learning
the skills and knowledge an employee gains through study and/or observation.
Organizational Learning Levels
Group or team learning
the collective skills and knowledge that a group obtains
Organizational Learning Levels
Organization learning
the overall productive capacity an organization gains through an intentional and continual pursuit of improvement
Adaptive learning
using past experience to influence future actions
Anticipatory learning
envisioning possible futures to identify and pursue new opportunities
Action learning
reflecting on the present in order to guide development across learning levels
Learning culture
interdependent, so employees alternate between the roles of the student and teacher. Organization should support feedback. They facilitate collaboration, experimentation, and reflection to maintain an active learning cycle
Peter Senge’s Five Principles:
Systems thinking
the ability to comprehend the whole and to examine the interrelationship among the parts to identify and solve problems accurately
Peter Senge’s Five Principles:
Personal mastery
continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively. No learning occurs without personal mastery
Peter Senge’s Five Principles:
Mental models
deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures and images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action
Peter Senge’s Five Principles:
Building shared vision
very important in implementing and sustaining a major change initiative. Starts with leadership
Peter Senge’s Five Principles:
Team learning
the process of aligning and developing the capacities of a team to create the results its members truly desire. Team learning builds on systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, and shared vision
Peter Senge’s Five Principles:
Systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, building shared vision, team learning
Woolner’s Five Stage model
1. Forming the organization
2. Developing the organization
3. The mature organization
4. Adapting organization
5. Learning organization
Woolner’s Five Stage model:
1. Forming the organization
Learn through trail and error
Woolner’s Five Stage model:
2. Developing the organization
Begun to solidify business models and products can start to set up formal, proactive learning situations through training with outsiders
Woolner’s Five Stage model:
3. The mature organization
Understand the need for employee learning and begin to provide internal training
Woolner’s Five Stage model:
4. Adapting organization
Learning becomes part of the strategic plan. Learning is integral to the company’s long-term growth at individual, group, and organizational levels
Woolner’s Five Stage model:
5. Learning organization
Learning becomes part of an organization’s day-to-day activities. Its fully integrated into operations and is viewed as part of the organization’s health and success. Encourages formal and informal learning
Organizational diagnosis of change
refers to the process of understanding the current state of how an organization functions and providing necessary information for designing change interventions
Three types of change
reorganization and restructuring, spinning off businesses, and sell the business
Resource Dependency Theory
organizations are dependent on the environments in which they operate. Motivation of the leaders was to ensure the survival of the organization and enhance its autonomy while maintaining stability
Duncan’s Model: Environmental-industry-organization fit
can be used to understand an organization’s existing environment and to diagnose the type of organization to which that organization might move to increase its performance. The model is a simple “big picture” and straightforward way of mapping an organization’s fit with environmental uncertainty. The two dimensions of environments are: environmental change and environmental complexity
Systems contingency model (congruence model)
there is no one right or best strategy, structure, or culture that can predict organizational success; effectiveness is defined by the “fit” or congruence of these dimensions working together to meet environmental and competitive requirements. Starts with the organization’s vision, mission, and strategy
Systems contingency model (congruence model):
Input Phase
“Customer requirements”
Shows that leadership, environment, history, and resources of the organization, emphasized as customer requirements because translating and meeting customer needs in the environment are central to survival and success
Systems contingency model (congruence model):
Output Phase
“Customer partnership”
the leadership and managers are responsible for creating, processing, and completing the services and or products before delivery
Systems contingency model (congruence model):
Transformation Phase
“Customer satisfaction”
reflects the effectiveness of this model through three levels: organizational level, group level, and individual professional level
Greiner’s Organizational Life Cycle Model
used to diagnose the types of crises and challenges organizations face as they age. This model adds a historical dimension for understanding an organization’s developmental needs in terms of changing capabilities required of leaders to grow organizations along their life-cycle. Move through periods of stability with embedded crisis.
Greiner’s Organizational Life Cycle Model:
Stage 1
Entrepreneurial- Growth with creativity
i. Resembles a typical startup
ii. Communication is frequent and informal
iii. Styles of leaders and people are individualistic, creative, and entrepreneurial.
iv. This stage is fun and has a strong market response.
Greiner’s Organizational Life Cycle Model:
Stage 2
Collectivity- Growth with Clear Direction
i. A functional organizational structure is adopted and specialized jobs are assigned
ii. Systems are put into place and systems and working rules are established.
iii. Communication is formal and impersonal and titles and positions are developed.
iv. Leaders must either give up some control, learn to delegate, and change hierarchy.
Greiner’s Organizational Life Cycle Model:
Stage 3
Formalization- Growth with delegation
i. More responsibility is given to managers and employees to accomplish organizational goals and their work.
ii. Hierarchical structure is changed to decentralized units
iii. Communication and decisions making is less top-down
Greiner’s Organizational Life Cycle Model:
Stage 4
Elaboration- Growth with Coordination
i. Use of formal systems to achieve greater coordination through more efficient allocation of corporate and local resources.
Greiner’s Organizational Life Cycle Model:
Stage 5
Revitalization or Decline- Growth with collaboration and innovation
i. Endorses interpersonal collaboration, flexibility, and behavioral leadership and management styles.
ii. Promotes spontaneity through teams and meaningful confrontation.
iii. Accomplished through quick problem solving by cross functional teams, reduction and integration of headquarters staff members, conferences frequently to solve significant problems.
Change intervention
planned actions designed to help enhance an organization’s effectiveness by solving a problem or creating an opportunity
First order (adaptive) change
incremental, small-scale, fine-tuning, and developmental. These changes involve adjustments to systems
Second order (discontinuous) change
radical, transformational, and sometimes transitional in nature. Changes are also called “frame bending” and may be done with a “big bang”.
Levels of intervention- planned actions to enhance an organization’s effectiveness that focus on the organization, team or group, or individual.
a. Developmental
b. Transitional
c. Transformational
Action Research Model
the dominant methodological basis for planned change. Designed to provide objective information and analysis that goes beyond the superficial level of presenting certain issues. There are usually continuous feedback loops (informally and formally) as contingencies, mishaps, and changes in the environment and the organization occur.
Action Research Model phases
a. Identify the problem or opportunity
b. Consult with the client- Initial meeting
c. Collect Data
d. Make a preliminary diagnosis
e. Present Feedback to the Client
f. Jointly diagnose Problem/ Opportunity/ Findings with client
g. Instigate Joint Action Steps
h. Implement Change
i. Managing Change: The change consultant’s role
j. Collect Post-Implementation Data
Kotter’s 8-Step Change Process
used to help with the need for large-scale transformational change that requires comprehensive planning approaches that both the OD and change management fields offer. 8 steps include:
a. Step 1: Establish a sense of urgency
b. Step 2: Form a Powerful Guiding Coalition
c. Step 3: Create a Vision
d. Step 4: Communicate the Vision
e. Step 5: Empower Other to Act on the Vision
f. Step 6: Plan for and Create Short-Term Wins
g. Step 7: Consolidate Improvements and Produce More Change
h. Step 8: Institutionalize New Approaches in the Culture
Appreciative Inquiry Approach/ Phases
engages people across the organization in creating positive change that focuses on learning from success. Is the cooperative search for the best in people, their organizations, and the world around them. Involves systematic discovery. Four Phases:
a. Discovery- Appreciating that which gives life
b. Dream- Envisioning impact
c. Design- Co-Constructing the future
d. Delivery- Sustaining the change
Organizational inertia
the tendency of organizations to maintain the status quo
Lewin’s force-field analysis
can assist individuals, groups, and organizations in the understanding and overcoming resistance to specific changes. Lewin’s view of “change” was that it is the result of opposing forces moving for and against status quo at any given time
Cultural silos
the tendency for departments to work independently from one another and to communicate with one another in an inadequate fashion
Lewin’s Change Management model
Unfreeze, change, freeze (refreeze). Simple and easy to understand framework for achieving behavioral and attitudinal change approach in order to achieve a desired future state that benefits the organization.
Lewin’s Change Management model
Stage 1
Stage 1: Unfreezing- makes the organization aware of the problems and the need for change. Develop a compelling message and sense of urgency
Lewin’s Change Management model
Stage 2
Stage 2: Change- where people begin to resolve their indecision and look for new ways to do things. Leadership provides a new vision and plan that everyone can believe in
Lewin’s Change Management model
Stage 3
Stage 3: Refreezing- Needs to develop a coalition among people for the organization to adopt and institutionalize the changes
Ackerman and Anderson’s change process model
The road map developed by Ackerman and Anderson is often described as a “thinking discipline” rather than a prescribed way of forcing an organization’s behavior into a forced plan and timeline. Steps:
a. Preparing the lead to change
b. Creating vision, commitment and capability
c. Assessing the situation: Determine design requirements and desired state and analyze the impact
d. Plan organize and implement the change
e. Analyze the impact
f. Plan and organize for implementation
g. Implement the change
h. Celebrate and integrate the new state
i. Learn and course correct
Warrick’s six-step change implementation process
a. Step 1: keep the big picture in mind
b. Step 2: Choose the right interventions
c. Step 3: Use a sound change model to plan and manage the change process
d. Step 4: Keep people engaged and make the incentive for change great than the incentive to stay the same
e. Step 5: Identify and manage resistance to change
f. Step 6: Follow through and learn from the process
Cumming’s and Worley’s five dimensions of leading and depicting change:
Motivating Change
i. Creating readiness for change
ii. Overcoming resistance to change
Cumming’s and Worley’s five dimensions of leading and depicting change:
Creating a vision
i. Mission
ii. Value outcomes and conditions
iii. Midpoints goals
Cumming’s and Worley’s five dimensions of leading and depicting change:
Developing political support
i. Assessing change agent power
ii. Identifying key stakeholders
iii. Influencing stakeholders
Cumming’s and Worley’s five dimensions of leading and depicting change:
Managing the transition
i. Activity planning
ii. Commitment planning
iii. Management structures
Cumming’s and Worley’s five dimensions of leading and depicting change:
Sustaining momentum
i. Providing resources for change
ii. Building a support system for change agents
iii. Reinforcing new behaviors
Cumming’s and Worley’s five dimensions of leading and depicting change
Motivating change, creating a vision, developing political support, managing the transition, sustaining momentum, depicting chage
a combination of an organization’s fundamental reason for existence beyond just making money, its timeless unchanging core values, and huge and audacious aspirations
an organizing concept that pulls together absolutely everything necessary to deliver some important component of the strategic value
Process owner
person who is given both the responsibility and accountability for the performance of a complete, integrated process
an executive from the organization’s line operation who has position authority and power in the chain of command to direct employees to perform tasks related to his position and the organization’s goals
Traits of successful change leaders
highly competent, well positioned to lead change, well respected and well-liked, trusted by others in the organization and have a history of accomplishments related to organization’s mission.
specific planned activities and events aimed at helping an organization increase its effectiveness. Its effective if: it fits the organization’s needs; casual knowledge that the planned result of the intervention is based on adequate examination and is determined to be worth the effort; and it transfers management competence to the organization’s members
Organizational dimensions for planned interventions
leadership, strategy and culture
three necessary steps of the change process
Managing, recreating, and rejuvenating
Managers and employees can become disillusioned, lose motivation, and become resistant.
When change is arbitrarily imposed, poorly explained, and hastily announced from the top
The five pillars:
There are five principal components that are integral to any successful company, they are interrelated and interdependent, and all five dimensions must be in alignment for change to be successful and sustainable.
leadership; strategy; culture; structure; and systems
Level 5 leadership
The leaders led and worked not flamboyantly or with highly observable charismatic, loud, or dramatic styles; but calmly, quietly, humbly, in strong-willed ways
First Who, Then What
the leaders found and placed the right people in the right place and let the wrong people go, before setting a new vision and strategy
Confronting Brutal Facts
The great companies and their leaders confronted harsh, unflattering truths about the organization, while never losing faith that they could and would prevail in the face of adversity
Hedgehog concept
Great companies and their leaders learned and followed what they did best by understanding and implementing their passion, what they could do best, and drove their economic engine.
The flywheel
not seeking a grand, single defining moment or killer application, but relentlessly pushing a large, heavy flywheel in one direction, turn after turn, until momentum built to a point of breakthrough after breakthrough.
Strategic Positioning
the way in which the organization’s vision and values aligns with the strategy.
Strategic Positioning:
Variety-based positioning
serves few needs of many customers
Strategic Positioning:
Needs-based positioning
serving many needs of few customer. Choosing a strategy based on a group of customers, rather than a specific set of products
Strategic Positioning:
Access-based positioning
serving many needs of many customers in a narrow market. Choosing a strategy based on the accessibility of certain customers
Culture risk
the risk that strategy and culture will be incompatible, creating a resistance to change and thus a risk.
Most critical but challenging factor in successfully navigating change. Exists when there is unified supported understanding on who the organization is, what it stands for, and how it functions
Data warehousing
the use of huge databases that combine all of a company’s data and allow users to access that data directly and create reports
Business intelligence (data mining)
the high-tech analysis of a company’s data in order to make a better strategic decision
Executive information system
a high-level application that facilitates decision making at upper levels of management using software
Level 1 leader
individual is highly capable. Plays an important role in the success of the organization through their own talent, knowledge, skills, and good work habits
Level 2 leader
a team member who is very good at working and contributing to the team efforts and ensures that their team meets its assigned objectives and fulfills purpose
Level 3 leader
a competent manger. They are skilled at organizing people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of organizational objectives
Level 4 leader
an effective leader. They set high-level performance standards and are skilled at motivating people and learning them single-mindedly toward realizing the leader’s vision for the organization.
Level 5 leader
transforms the organization into a great institution. They epitomize personal humility and fierce professional will
Business-level strategies
define the logic and actions organizations take to gain a competitive advantage using their competencies in a specific business
Operational and functional-level strategies
define ways each part of the business or functional area is organized to deliver the corporate and business-unit level strategic direction
Human capital
refers to the skills, knowledge, and experience of individuals or a workforce with regard to their value and cost as invested and incurred by an organization
Built to change organizations
those that are built with practices in place to encourage change rather than obstruct it. It better equips them to navigate change and grow
Self designing organizations
organizations that have capabilities to renew change themselves fundamentally and continuously. Risk taking is embraced and employee empowerment and ownership is not part of the organizational culture
Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
an organization’s self-imposed efforts toward a positive social, environmental, and ethical impact, considering its core identity and industry
Core competencies
an organization’s strongest capabilities, based on the combination of production skills and technologies and they are also critical in creating sustainable organizations
an organization’s responsibility to maintain its operations and relevance to all stakeholders, even as regards to physical environment, into the future
Organizations innovate to:
create new markets, overcome stagnated growth, innovators dilemma
Innovation is used to:
develop new products or services, processes, or business models starting from a creative idea to the launch, Allows the organization to respond to market demands or business imperatives
Innovation vs Change Management
Innovation and change management go hand in hand. But innovation is about doing things a different way and change management is managing how you implement the changes.
Incremental or sustaining innovation
Refers to a series of incremental, small improvements to existing products or products line that help to sustain and maintain or improve its competitive position over time. Reduced risk
Disruptive innovation
Changing existing products, services, or processes that radically change competition in the industry. Radically change an industry’s “rules of the game”
Trickle up or reverse innovation
Iinstead of innovating in highly developed affluent countries, they are creating innovative low-cost products for emerging markets and the repackaging them to sell in the developed western countries
Innovative leaders:
display excellent strategic vision; have a strong customer focus; create a climate of reciprocal trust; display fearless loyalty; put their faith in a culture that magnifies upward communication; are persuasive; excel at setting stretch goals; emphasize speed; are candid in their communication; and inspire and motivate through action
Innovative Leaders
Inspire curiosity
Inovation leaders must encourage employees to expand their understanding of both internal and external stakeholders: who they are, how they are interdependent, and the unique contexts in which each one operates
Innovative Leaders
Challenge current perspectives
Innovation leaders must help employees view problems and opportunities differently and envision alternative possibilities
Innovative Leaders
Create freedom
Innovation leaders must empower experimentation, risk taking, learning from mistake, and valuing effort over perfection
Innovative Leaders
Drive discipline
Innovation leaders must help employees identify execution implications early and often, and align efforts to ensure successful implementation of innovative solutions.
Product innovation
The process of bringing to life a new product or service to solve a perceived customer need that will provide a benefit.
Process or production innovations
Increase the bottom line profitability, reduce costs, raise productivity, and increase employee satisfaction.
Strategy innovation
challenging existing industry methods of creating customer value in order to meet newly emerging customer needs, add additional value, and create new markets and new customer groups for the organization.
Three innovation strategies:
Exploration phase- involves designing the organization to encourage creativity and the initiation of new ideas. Uses processes such as the bottoms-up approach, internal contests, and idea incubators
Three innovation strategies:
Cooperation phase- occurs when the organization creates the conditions and systems to bring all stakeholders together, both internal and external to facilitate ideas and knowledge of sharing. Accomplished by use of horizontal linkages model, viewing customers and external stakeholders as partners or using open innovation.
Three innovation strategies:
Innovation roles
Innovation roles- where idea champions and teams come together to create new ideas. It is important to create a structure to make sure new ideas are supported, carried forward, accepted, and implemented.
Bottoms-up Approach
encourages the flow of ideas from lower levels in the organization and makes sure they get heard and acted upon by top executives.
Idea Incubator
popular way to encourage new ideas within the organization. Ran entirely in-house but provides a safe harbor where ideas from employees throughout the organization can be developed without interference from company bureaucracy and politics
Horizontal linkage model
provides a framework for the shared development of innovations among several departments. This approach saves both time and money in the development of innovations by increasing coordination among departments. A risk involve is that its possible to become too passionate about the innovation and overlook potential risks.
when organizations create the conditions and systems to help facilitate internal and external coordination and knowledge sharing
Internal coordination
the combined expertise of a number of different players, each with their own areas of specialization, to come up with a single creative, yet realistic, solution.
External coordination
occurs when organizations look outside their boundaries to find and develop new ideas.
Closed innovation
When a business generates its own ideas in-house and then develops, manufactures, markets, and distributes them
Open innovation
Extending the search for and commercialization of new ideas beyond the confines of the organization and even beyond the limits of the industry, sharing knowledge and resources with other organizations and individuals outside the firm. Crowdsourcing is used in here
Four roles of innovation:
Inventor, Champion, Sponsor, Critic
Four roles of innovation:
counter balances the zeal of the champion by challenging the concept and providing a reality test against established criteria. Prevents people in the other roles from adopting a bad idea.
Four roles of innovation:
comes up with a new idea and understands its technical value but has neither the ability nor interest to promote it for acceptance within the organization.
Four roles of innovation:
has confidence in the idea, challenges the organizational realities of costs and benefits, and gains the political and financial support needed to bring it to reality. Sees the need for change.
Four roles of innovation:
high level manager who approves the idea, protects the idea, and removes major organizational barriers to acceptance
New venture team
another way to facilitate entrepreneurship with an organization. A new venture team is a standalone unit separate from the rest of the organization that is responsible for developing and initiating a major innovation.
a separate small, informal, autonomous and often secretive group. This group focuses on break-through ideas for businesses.
Categories: Change Management