Chapter 11: Strategic leadership and change management

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Organizational change
an alternation in an organizations alignment with its external environment.
two types of change
can emerge or amplify into a much larger and radical change than was first anticipated.
The first step in managing change
-Identify and analyze the need for change
Three stages from Lewin’s classic theory of change
1.)”unfreezing” an existing state
2.)moving to a new and desirable state
3.)”refreezing” that new state
What happens in the unfreezing stage?
-Establish a sense of urgency

-a motivation for change is created.

Which phase is known as Cognitive Restructuring?
-Changing phase (moving to a new/desirable state)
What are the stages in the “Change Phase”?
1.)Form powerful guiding coalition
2.)develop a compelling vision
3.)communicate the vision widely
4.)empower employees to act on the vision
5.)generate short term wins
6.)consolidate gains, create greater change
What strategies should be adopted during the “refreezing” phase to achieve change?
-A variety of things can be done to achieve this including new rules/norms, attitudes, traditions, regulations, and reward schemes to institutionalize the new changes and increase desired behaviors.
The leaders role in managing change must do what for it to be an effective change?
-make effort to eliminate policies, procedures,and behaviors that undermine the change efforts.

-be willing to alter his or her own behavior if it will minimize resistance.

-be good listeners.

What must happen in the refreezing stage?
-Institutionalize changes in the organizational culture.
Kotters 8 steps to effective change
1.)est. a sense of urgency

2.)form a support platform
3.)Develop a compelling vision
4.)diffuse vision through the org.
5.)train/empower followers to act on the vision
6.)Allow short term accomplishments and reward performance
7.)consolidate gains by changing culture, systems, policies, and structures to align with new vision

8.)institutionalize the change in the organizations culture.

Why do people resist change?
-threat to self interest
-lack of confidence that change will succeed
-lack of conviction that change is necessary
-distrust of leadership
-threat to personal values
-fear of being manipulated
What options/strategies can leaders use to effectively manage change?
-Articulating a compelling reason for change

-Having open and regular communications

-Having a road map for implementation

-Having training programs for required skills/competencies

-Forming a coalition of supporters and experts

-Staying the course in spite of perceived difficulties

-Recognizing and rewarding the contributions of others

-Carefully managing resources and priorities

-Keeping the process transparent

-Having a plan for dealing with resistance

How to minimize resistance to change (The 5 P’s)
-Effective leaders ensure that they keep employees informed, supported, and motivated about any change initiatives


Categories: Change Management