CS 490: Change Management
What are the main reasons that people resist change within an organization?
1. Change is about future but we live in the present
2. Change is perceived as being always destructive
3. More work
5. Ruining existing plans
Three Phases of Change
1. Current State – employees live here
2. Transition State
3. Future State – project teams live here
What is the foundation of the conflict between those who want change and the people getting impacted by the change?
People who promote the change think about the future, but the people are thinking about current/present
Recipe for change success
Solution is designed, developed and delivered effectively (Technical side)
Solution is embraced, adopted, and utilized effectively (People side)
Functional view of the organization
A stable, formal social structure that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs
Behavioural view of Organization
Describe the four components of the destructive nature of change
1. Routines and business processes – I used to write, now I need to type
2. Politics – Roles and responsibilities be different
3. Culture – If you use a more efficient system -> job may be in danger
4. Structure – Positions and things may change or be created
The process, tools, and techniques to manage the people – side of change to achieve the required business outcome(s)
Four components of Leavitt Diamond
Change to Task
Change to Structure
How would existing positions/teams/departments or management structure be impacted?
– Do we need to fire or transfer existing personnel?
– Hire new personnel for new positions
– Dissolve existing teams?
– Create new teams
– Shift or redefine responsibilities
Change to People
Two key questions
– Will they accept the change?
– Can they perform after the change?
What is the key consideration in managing change for people?
Change is individual process. Each individual is different and processes change differently. Effective change management must be focused on helping individuals change.
Awareness – of the need for change
Desire – to participate and support the change
Knowledge – on how to change
Ability – to implement required skills and behaviours
Reinforcement – to sustain the change
Communication Checklist for Awareness
1. Have you identified all of the different audiences you need to communicate with throughout the organization?
2. Have you identified who the ideal sender of communication messages will be?
3. Have you identified what are the most effective channels of communication?
4. Have you created mechanisms to enable two-way communication to take place?
What is the most challenging part of Change Management?
Creating the desire to support the change. It is difficult to identify, measure and address.
1. What might the resistance LOOK LIKE?
2. Where will it COME FROM?
3. Develop measures to PREVENT OR MITIGATE resistance before it happens
4. Develop an APPROACH to deal with resistanc
1. Create the EXPECTATION that managers and supervisors will be coaches
2. Deliver “What’s in it for me” messages
3. Do supervisors have the KNOWLEDGE, TRAINING, TOOLS to be effective coaches?
4. Have you taught them how to deal with RESISTANCE?
1. Have the systems in place to track the adoption and compliance of the new solution
2. Way to gather feedback from those impacted by the change
3. Mechanisms to diagnose gaps and resistance
4. Know how to party when there is success (even a small one)
What are the key channels to enable effective change management?
1. Communications (Affects Awareness)
2. Sponsor Roadmap (Affects Awareness and Desire)
3. Training (Affects Knowledge)
4. Readiness/resistance mgmt (Affects Desire)
5. Coaching (Affects Desire, Ability, Reinforcement)
Who are the inter-connected ‘doers’ behind change management?
1. Executive and senior managers
2. Middle managers and supervisors
3. Change management resource/team
4. Project team
5. Project support functions
Ideal implementation of change mgmt resource/team
“I develop the change management strategy and plans. I am an integral part of project success.”
Ideal implementation of executives and senior managers
“I launch (authorize and fund) changes”
“I sponsor change”
Middle managers and front-line supervisors
“I coach my direct reports through the changes that impact their day-to-day work”
“I manage the technical side of the change. I integrate change management into my project plans”
Project support functions
“I support different activities of the change management team and project team”