MHR – Change Management

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External forces for change
Originate outside the organization. Such forces often apply to your organization and its competitors or even entire industries

Demographics, technological advancements, shareholder, customer, and market changes, social and political pressures

Internal forces to change
come from inside the organization

HR problems and prospects, managerial behavior and decisions

3 General Types of Change
Adaptive Change
Innovative Change
Radically Innovative Change
Adaptive Change
least complex, costly, and uncertain

Involves reimplementation of a change in the same organizational unit at a later time or imitation of a similar change by a different unit

Innovative Change
Falls midway on the continuum of complexity, cost, and uncertainty

Both have more uncertainty and cause more fear than adaptive change

Radically Innovative Change
High end of the continuum of complexity, cost, and uncertainty

Most difficult to implement and tend to be the most threatening to managerial confidence and employee job security

Potentially realize the greatest benefits but must be supported by the organization’s culture

Lewin’s Change Model
3-stage model of planned change that explains how to initiate, manage and stabilize the change process


create the motivation to change. The initial challenge is creating and communicating a convincing reason to change
where change occurs – entails providing employees with new information, new behavioral models, new processes or procedures, new equipment, etc
support and reinforce the change positively
Systems Model of Change
Inputs –> Strategic Plan –> Target Elements of Change –> Outputs

Used to diagnose what to change and to determine how to evaluate the success of a change effort

Overarching motive or reason for change. Assure that the intended changes align with mission, vision, strategic plan
Strategic Plan
outlines long-term direction and the actions necessary to achieve the planned results
Target Elements of Change
Change levers that managers can push and pull to influence various aspects of an organization

Organization arrangements
Social factors

desired end results or goals of a change
Believes that change most often fails because of ineffective implementation.

Kotter’s model differs from the systems model in that it does not help in diagnosing the need for or targets of change

Similar to Lewin’s Model in that it guides managers through the process of effective organizational change

Kotter’s 8 Steps for Leading Organizational Change
1. Establish a sense of urgency
2. Create the guiding coalition
3. Develop a vision and strategy
4. Communicate the change vision
5. Empower the broad-based action
6. Generate short-term wins
7. Consolidate gains and produce more change
8. Anchor new approaches in the culture
Organizational Development
Possesses the same diagnostic focus associated with the systems model, but much broader in orientation

OD is about planned change aimed at increasing ability to self-improvement
OD takes theories and results from the lab and applies it to real-life work settings
OD takes a distinctly democratic and participative approach to solving conflict

OD Process
1. Diagnosis
2. Intervention
3. Evaluation
4. Feedback
Resistance to Change
thought, emotion, or behavior that does not align with real of potential changes to existing routines

Caused by recipient characteristics, change agent characteristics, quality of relationship of recipient/change agent

Change Agent
someone who is a catalyst in helping organizations to deal with old problems in new ways

Can be external consultants or internal employees

Recipient Characteristics
Dispositional resistance to change (routine seeking, emotional reaction, short-term focus, cognitive rigidity)
Surprise and fear of the unknown
Fear of failure
Loss of status and/or job security
Peer pressure
Past success
Change Agent Characteristics
Decisions that disrupt cultural traditions or group relationships
Personality conflicts
Lack of tact or poor timing
Leadership style
Failing to legitimize change
Relationship of recipient/change agent
generally resistance is reduced when change agents and recipients have a positive, trusting relationship
Categories: Change Management