Chapter 6 contingency theories of leadership

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1. They are theories rather than someones assumptions.
2. they implicitly assume that leaders are able to accurately diagnose or assess key aspects of the followers or the leadership situation.
3. Leaders are assumed to be able to act in flexible manner
4. Correct match between situational and follower characteristics and leaders behaviors is assumed to have positive effect on group or organizational outcomes
5 Theories about leadership. What do they have in common
1. Leader member exchange theory
2. Normative Decision Model
3. Situational leadership model
4. Contingency model
5. Path goal theory
The 5 models
Leaders do not treat all followed it they were a uniform group of equals. Specific linkages which each subordinate, creating dyadic relationships.
+Leader member exchange (LMX) theory
out group: low quality relationships. strict contractual obligations

In group: high quality exchange, go beyond what the job requires

2 major groups of linkages
1. Role-taking: early in position
2. Role-making: role is created on basis of trust building (fragile stage, betrayal can lead to drop out of in-group)
3. Routinization: happens when relations becomes well-established. Phase where things get cemented.
stages of developments
Leaders goals should be that the whole organization becomes the in-group.
Summary of LMX
Does not describe the specific behaviors that lead to high quality relationship exchanges
Limitation LMX
Directly solely determine how much input subordinates should have in the decision making process. more input could improve group performance
+Normative Decision model (Vroom, Yetton and Jago)
Ranging from completely autocratic to completely democratic. Autocratic – Group
Levels of participation
After establishing continuum of D/M process – criteria to evaluate the adequacy of the decision made.
Decision quality and acceptance
if decision has rational or objectively determinable better or worse alternative the leader should select the better alternative
decision quality
followers accept the decision as if it were their own and not merely comply with the decision. Acceptance is important, particularly if the followers will bear the principal responsibility for the implementation
Decision acceptance
Makes teaser for leaders to determine how much participation subordinates should have to optimize decision quality and acceptance. Go from left to right – eventually all paths lead to a set of decision processes which will lead to a decision that protects both quality and acceptance.
Decision tree Vroom en Yetton
Leader is interested in implementing a high quality decision that is acceptable for followers. No evidence that it works
concluding remarks normative model
single point in time; leaders are equally skilled
Problems model
Leaders do not interact with all followers in the same manner. is there an optimum way for leaders to adjust their behavior with different followers and thereby in- crease their likelihood of success? The models helps to select the most appropriate behavior given the current level of follower readiness. Je trekt een streep van follower readiness naar de lijn – dat is wat je moet doen.
+ Situational Leadership Model
Vertical: relationship behavior
Horizontal: task behavior
Model with 2 axes
refers to a followers ability and willingness to accomplish a task
Follower readiness
Curve line which represents that leadership behavior that will most likely be effective given a particular level of follower readiness. First assess readiness > draws line .
Prescriptions of the model
delegating (lo task, lo rel)
participating (lo task, high rel)
selling (high task, high rel)
telling (high task, low rel)
4 quadrants
Leader may have dominant behavioral tendencies. This model recognizes that leaders have these general behavioral tendencies and specifics situations leaders may be more effective than others. Opposite of Situational Leadership Model > leaders are no flexible but consistent in their behavior.

SLT maintains that leaders who correctly base their behaviors on follower maturity will be more effective, whereas the contingency model suggest that leader effectiveness is primarily determined by selecting the right kind of leader for a certain situation or changing the situations tot fir the particulars leaders style.

+ Contingency model
Je lult over iemand met wie je het minst graag samenwerkt op basis van tegenstelling. Dit wordt een score die iets zegt over de leider en niet de subordinate. > leaders motivation hierarchy.
Least preferred co-worker scale (kijk afbeelding)
Low LPC leaders
High LPC leaders
LPC groups
motivated by task accomplishment. when taks is accomplished they move to second motivation > relationship with followers
Low LPC leaders
Motivated by relationships > then go to task accomplishment. Similar to ohio state.

Intermediate scores cannot accurately identify the motivation hierarchy for individuals.

High LPC leaders
the more control the leader has, the more favorable the situation is.
Second variable: situation variability (kijk afbeelding)
1. Leader-member relations
2. Task structure
3. Position power
Three sub-elements in situational variability
if situational favorability is moderate, then those groups led by leaders concerned with establishing and maintaining relations seem to do the best. If the situation is either very unfavorable or highly favorable, then those groups led by task-motivated (low plc) leaders seem to do the best.
Prescription of the model, kijk afbeelding
Deals with expectancy, can be used to predict what tasks people will put their energies into, geven some finite number of options. Uses same basic assumptions as expectancy theory. At the most fundamental level the effective leader will or ensure that availability of values rewards for followers (goal) and then help them find the best way of getting there (path). The leader action should strengthen followers beliefs that if they exert a certain level of effort, they will be more likely to accomplish a tast and if they accomplish the task they will be more likely to achieve some valued outcome.
+ Path goals theory
Achievement oriented
four Leadership behaviors
Path goals theory: differing styles with same/differing situations.
The leader
2 groups:
satisfaction of followers
followers perception of their won abilities
The follower
The task
The formal authority system
The primary work group
The situation
3 situational factors that impact or moderate the effects of leader behavior on follower attitudes and behaviors
leaders > first assess the situation > select leadership behaviour appropriate of situational demands. By manifesting appropriate behaviors leaders can increase followers effort-to-performace expectancies, performance-to-reward expectancies or valences of the outcomes.
Prescription of the theory
They all specify that leaders should make their behaviors contingent on certain aspects of the followers to improve leadership effectiveness.
+ What do all theories have in common?
Categories: Leadership