Contingency Leadership Theories

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Identify four Contingency Leadership Theories
1. Fiedler’s Least-Preferred Co-worker Theory
2. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
3. House’s Path-Goal Theory
4. Vroom-Jago Contingency Model
Describe Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
1. Suggests that the appropriateness of a leadership style is dependent on followers readiness level
2. Low, Moderate, High and Very High Readiness levels
3. Correlates to Telling, Selling, Participating and Delegating leadership styles
**Describe House’s Path-Goal Theory
1. Relies on three contingencies (1) leader behaviour (2) situational contingencies and (3) rewards used to meet workers needs
2. Leaders responsibility to increase workers motivation to reach personal and org. goals by clarifying the path that will lead to rewards
3. Path clarification means the leader helps workers to perform the required behaviour that will lead to completion of the task and rewards
4. Increase distance between each milestone as they improve
5. Correlates to Supportive, Directive, Achievement-orientated and participative leadership styles
Describe Vroom-Jago Model
Decision-making contingencies (questions that need to be asked when deciding which of the five styles to use)
1. Decide
2. Consult individually
3. Consult group
4. Facilitate
5. Delegate
What is Charismatic Leadership?
Charismatic leaders have the ability to inspire and motivate people to do more, despite obstacles and personal sacrifice
Key characteristics of Charismatic Leaders?
1. Self-confident
2. Vision
3. Articulate
4. Strong convictions
5. Unconventional
6. Change agent
7. Environment sensitive (high self monitoring)
What is the dark side of Charismatic Leadership?
Enjoys the spotlight too much
Entrenchment tendencies – won’t make way for other people
Difference between Transactional and Transformational leaders?
Transactional leaders guide or motivate followers by clarifying roles and task requirements

Transformational leaders possess charisma and provide individualised consideration and intellectual stimulation. They are able to bring about significant change in their followers and the organisation

Traits of Transformational Leaders
1. HELP people see how IMPORTANT they are to the ORGANISATION and how important it is for them to PERFORM their job as BEST they can

2. HEIGHTEN peoples’ AWARENESS of their own needs for personal growth, development and accomplishment

3. LEAD people to work for GOOD OF ORGANISATION as a whole and not just for their own personal benefit or gain

4. DEVELOP followers into (potential) LEADERS

5. ELEVATE the concerns of followers from lower order needs to higher level of psychological needs (Maslow’s)

6. INSPIRE followers to go BEYOND their own self interests

7. PAINT A VISION of a desired future and MAKES THEIR FOLLOWERS BELIEVE that the effort that is required to make the change is worth it

The four I’s of Transformational Leaders
1. Intellectual stimulation
2. Individualized Consideration
3. Inspirational motivation
4. Idealised influenced
Benefits of Transformational Leadership
1. People trust their leaders
2. People are highly motivated
3. People are intrinsically motivated and thus develop initiative
4. People commit to organisational goals
5. People contribute to organisational goals
How to leaders build trust?
1. Practice openess
2. Be fair and equitable
3. Speak their feelings
4. Tell the truth
5. Show consistency
6. Fulfil their promises
7. Maintain confidences
8. Demonstrate competence
What is Servant Leadership?
1. Serves to ensure subordinates do a job better.
2. Gives away power, ideas, information, recognition, credit and truly value other people
3. Devotes themselves to others and to organisations mission
4. Encourage participation, share power, enhance self worth of others, unleash people’s creativity, full commitment, and natural impulse to learn
What is the Multiple Linkage Model?
Looks like Hersey and Blanchard’s model

Situational variables neutralizes / reduces your effectiveness as a leader i.e. broken promises, organisational politics

A substitute is a situational variable that makes leadership unnecessary or redundant

A neutraliser counteracts or nullifies leadership effectiveness

They can appear in the form of:
Organisational variables (group cohesiveness, inflexibility, power structures)
Task characteristics (highly structured tasks, intrinsic satisfaction derived from tasks)
Follower characteristics (professionalism, training)

Categories: Leadership