Exam 1 Leadership theories

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trait theory
people have innate abilities or characteristics which make them good leaders. Some people are born to lead and some are born to be led. Emphasizes ability over learning – Old: some people can’t be good leaders no matter how hard they try. New: skills can be developed.
Behavioral theories
concerned with what a leader does rather than who the leader is anyone can learn to be a leader.
Behavioral theories
task focused. directions are commands
people need extrinsic motivation. very productive
Behavioral theories
person focused. emphasis is on we rather than I and you. people are intrinsically motivated.
Behavioral theories
group focused. good for when problems are poorly defined & brainstorming is needed.
situational theory – contingency theories
focus is on leadership in situations.
contingency theory by feidler
“The effectiveness of a certain style is contingent on three aspects”:
1. Leadership-member relations – group atmosphere, degree of confidence, loyalty and attraction that followers feel for their leader.
2. Task structure – the degree to which the requirements of the task are clear and spelled out.
3. Position power – amount of authority a leader has to reward or punish – legitimate power.
Situations are most favorable when a leader has________
Situations are most favorable when a leader has good leader-member relations – positive group atmosphere, has a clear and structured task, and has legitimate power.
Early Management Theories
Scientific Method
focus on getting as much work as possible out of each employee.

one best way to accomplish a task. Increase productivity

Contemporary Leader-Manager Theories
focus on identifying factors that increase satisfaction and productivity and remove those factors that inhibit them.
Contemporary Leader-Manager Theories
1. Theory X and Theory Y – McGregor (1960)
2. maslow’s hierarchy of needs
3.Basic need theory
4. operant theory
5.transformational & transactional leadership
6. followership-interpersonal process of participation by following
Contemporary Leader-Manager Theories
Theory X and Theory Y – McGregor (1960)
Theory X – typical human is lazy, irresponsible, lacks intelligence, has little ambition and does not like to work. Managers believe people are rational and can be motivated by $ and the threat of punishment.

Theory Y – work itself and be motivating and rewarding. People can be trusted to do the job right. People can be self-directed, they like work and seek responsibility.

Contemporary Leader-Manager Theories
maslow’s hierarchy of needs
self-actualization, growth, development
self-esteem, respect, recognition
acceptance, approval, friendship, support
safety, trust, stability
food, shelter, air, h20, sleep

motivators-factors that drive behavior

maslow’s hierarchy of needs
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
fiscal reward
maslow’s hierarchy of needs
within a person
self-esteem, needs for recognition
Contemporary Leader-Manager Theories
Basic Need Theory – (McClelland)
Need for Achievement – desire to overcome challenges, to excel, to advance, to grow.

Need for Power – the desire to influence people and situations, the need to be in control.

Need for Affiliation – the desire to work in a pleasant environment, form friendly close relationships.

Contemporary Leader-Manager Theories
Operant Theory (Skinner)
motivation is a learning process
People can be conditioned to behave in a certain way based on a consistent reward or punishment system. A behavior becomes associated with a particular consequence. Human behavior can be controlled by manipulating the consequences of behavior.
Negative Reinforcer:
Release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior. Releasing students from Friday homework if they have completed all of their classwork for the rest of the week is an example of a negative reinforcer.
Contemporary Leader-Manager Theories
Transformational and Transactional Leadership – Burns
Transformational leadership is a process that changes and transforms people. It is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards and long-term goals. It involves a form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is expected of them.
Two types of leaders: Transformational and Transactional
traditional managers that focus on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers.
1. Contingent reward – Survey their followers needs and set goals for them based on what can be expected from them. It is an exchange process that followers receive a reward for service.
2. Management by exception – focused on day-to-day operations and is focused on the maintenance and management of ongoing routine work. Leaders will watch followers closely for mistakes or rule violations and then takes corrective action.
Two types of leaders: Transformational and Transactional Transformational Leaders
Transformational Leaders – are committed leaders who motivate followers to perform to their full potential over time by influencing a change in perceptions and by providing a sense of direction/vision. Persons engage with others so that leaders and followers raise each other to higher levels of motivation. Focus on collective purpose and mutual growth.
Four factors of Transformational leaders
Four Factors:
1. Charisma- strong role model, desire to influence, self-confident, and strong moral values, shows competence, greatly respected.
2. Inspirational motivation- communicates a vision and has high expectations. They give their people rewards- responsibility & status
3. Intellectual stimulation- They support followers as they try new approaches. They help their people learn & develop.
4. Individual consideration- They get to know their people, they listen carefully.
Four activites of Transformational leaders
1. Create a vision
2. Build a social environment that provides meaning for employees.
3. Sustain trust
4. Recognize the importance of building self-esteem
Contemporary Leader-Manager Theories
Followership is an art and a skill that can be learned, cultivated and developed. Followers need to be self-directing, actively participating, practicing individuals who invest time and energy, think critically, and advocates new ideas.
servant leadership
leaders choose first to serve others and then to be a leader verses those who are leaders first and then choose to serve.
Servant Leaders put others first
Pygmalion Effect
States that supervisors’ attitudes and expectations of employees and how they treat them largely determine their performance.
“If you think you can, you can.”
Categories: Leadership