a. Autocratic Leadership
b. Democratic Leadership
c. Laissez Faire Leadership
make decisions on behalf of the group and maintain strict order
promotes group-based decision making, active member involvement, honest feedback, and team unity
Laissez Faire Leadership
gives the group complete independence and avoids becoming involved in its discussions or offering feedback of any kind
a. Empowering Leadership
b. Transformative Leadership
uses charisma and intellectual stimulation to encourage team followers to transcend personal self-interest in order to accomplish team goals.
develops follower self-capacity to achieve a state where teams actually lead themselves
c. Active participation
having great power and influence. employees want to identify with them and followers have a high degree of trust and confidence in them. they inspire and excite their employees with the idea that they may be able to accomplish great things with extra effort
people vary in terms of their ability to monitor their situation and tailor their behavior accordingly. self-monitors display smooth social flexibility that lets them enter new interactions easily and adapt quickly to changing circumstances
more likely to become group leaders. fulfilling the key communication functions, helping the group work through procedures, and helping a group coalesce into a clear identity. “willingness to communicate”
b. Deciders and Clerks
c. Majority Rule
d. Proportional Outcomes
e. Divine randomness
giving each group member veto power. avoid making decisions that any member opposes
Deciders and Clerks
decisions remain the responsibility of a single group member, the executive. groups power resides in a single individual, who has the latitude to act expediently and should take personal responsibility for the groups decisions
sim- a proposal or candidate for an office requires 50% plus one to prevail. p-one simply needs the most votes. sum- decisions can be based on ⅗, ⅔, ¾, and any other fraction greater than ½ and less than unanimity.
takes into account the proportions of the group membership that hold different view. a group deliberates to its members satisfaction, then votes among 2 or more alternatives; the final decision simply divides the groups resources among the alternatives in proportion to that final vote
random selection. i.e coin flip, card draw, drawing straws
Salas’ 6 traits of Teamwork
b. Backup Behavior
c. Mutual Performance Monitoring
d. Mutual Trust
e. Shared Mental Models
f. Team orientation
a flexibility in the groups structure that allows it to change in response to shifting task requirements and unanticipated external events
catch mistakes, slips, or lapses prior to or shortly after they have occurred.
Mutual Performance Monitoring
ensure that team members perform their jobs accurately and completely on any tasks
trusting one anothers competence and motivation to not waste time and effort rechecking each others work unnecessarily
Shared Mental Models
ones understanding of team and tasks
a preference for working with others but also a tendency to enhance individual performance through coordination, evaluation, and utilization of task inputs from other members while performing group tasks
Sequencing separate subtasks for distinct role specialization
Ex: football play
Working together cooperatively on each stage
Ex: rugby example: scrum- the group of people who fight to protect the ball
dispute over the nature of the role
conflict over who should play the role
Status characteristics theory
a. diffuse status characteristics
b. specific status characteristics
diffuse status characteristics
age, sex, ethnicity, nationality, accent, and other general characteristics can confer high or low status regardless of the setting.
specific status characteristics
refer to the abilities directly pertinent to the group task at hand
where one status marker conflicts with another
result in different sets of expectations about how other group members will and should behave during meetings
a. Substantive conflict
b. Affective conflict
c. Procedural conflict
d. Inequity conflict
involves ideas, values, ect. -> emotions get involved
communication style that is not in the form that you like
the way of doing things; emotions become involved
when group member feels they are treated unfairly
Dimensions of conflict
a. Affective dimension
b. Behavioral dimension
c. Cognitive dimension
Conflict handling styles
involves low-concern for self & low concern for other
in most cases this is the best conflict handling style to ensure a good resolution
a person uses this conflict handling style is concerned with winning
this conflict handling style is most concerned with maintain relationships between group members
compromising w/ other; finding a middle ground to find resolution
Describes the joining of individuals who differ in culture, demographic, and cognitive backgrounds.
EX: a team of people from all different states
Describes the differences based in the sum of the total beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, perceptions, customs, practices, language, and other artifacts of social life that are learned, shared, and passed on by
the degree of any inequality in relationship to power
the amount of stress associated with the unknown
how quickly aspects of life should develop (career, relationships)
Individualism or collectivism
cultural level- America is ver idealistic everything is self mad; collectivist- try not to do things/succeed or fail as a group.
a. Sex-.biological differences between male and female.
b. Gender-social beliefs associated with being male or female (masculine; feminine) very across different cultures.
The differences in the ways in which people learn & think
thinking and doing, problem solving, practical application; more individual
watching & feeling; imaginative, emotional, rather work w/others than by themselves
thinking and watching; abstract thinking; like logical; more individual
feeling and doing, action, trial-and-error, rather work in groups, w/others.
Mnsdasddifferences among group members based on education, work experience, and expertise
differences among group members in terms of what they consider as their groups goals, mission, and purpose.
group members many demographic dimensions resemble multiple layers, group faultlines can go unnoticed without the presence of external forces, and strong faultlines provide an opportunity for groups to physically crack.
Salazar’s 3-step model for building creative groups
c. amplification and extension
group members step back to take stock, together, of their groups features
disturbances that break the group out of its structural equilibrium. adopting a new procedure or set of norms, bringing in additional expert knowledge, or altering power relations.
amplification and extension
sees the group foreground the perturbation to become accustomed to this new group feature and draw out its implications for changing other group habits and traditions
group of people come together to come up with new ideas.group members should try to build on or riff off of oneanothers suggestions as this can stimulate group energy
Ddssdgroup w/ members who have different abilities, qualities, and ideas to bring to a task.
-better suited for complex task
-can be an input or output
*can directly affect the group interaction and productivity (input or can be a result of the groups interactions w/ each other (output)
Sdgroup w/ members who share the same basic knowledge, abilities, and characteristics
a temporary social unit thats formed to achieve one or more specific goals. when the job is done the task force is destroyed
Fsthe abilitiy to identify, asses, and control emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups.
these listeners listen primarily out of the concern for others feelings and emotions. These responsive listeners strive to find areas of interest between themselves and the speaker. They also tend to be sympathetic, non judgmental, caring, and understanding.
b. these listeners prefer concise, efficient, and error free messages; interested in listening to well-organized presentations; dislike ambiguity; may get impatient or frustrated when communication w/ a disorganized speaker
these listeners prefer concise, efficient, and error free messages; interested in listening to well-organized presentations; dislike ambiguity; may get impatient or frustrated when communication w/ a disorganized speaker
these listeners enjoy receiving complex or challenging information. They carefully evaluate info before forming an opinion about the info by asking questions, listening to both sides of an issue, and withholding judgment. Which eliminates any bias they may have towards the speaker or the topic.
these listeners measure interactions by informing their relational partners how much time they have available to listen. They prefer brief interactions and are more likely to interrupt or express displeasure w/ their conversational partner.