Project Management: Chapter 1

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1 a Project is
a one-off, temporary activity with a clear start and a clear end (though some projects never seem to end); it has Full or Part-time Resources clearly assigned to it
2 a Project is
a beneficial change which uses the Special Project Management Techniques to Plan and Control the Scope of Work in order to deliver a product to satisfy the client’s and stakeholders’ needs & expectations
Purpose of a Project
Meet Stakeholders Needs & Expectations
A fundamental requirement of the Project Manager is to establish who are the ____ (besides the client)
PM- Component Processes (STCQ-HCRPI)
1 Scope
2 Time
3 Cost
4 Quality
6 Communication
7 Risk
8 Procurement
9 Integration
1. With Project Management being the most efficient way of implementing change, it can only be achieved by:
1. Defining what must be done- in terms of time, cost & various technical & quality performance parameters

2. Developing a plan to achieve these & then working this plan, ensuring progress aligns with objectives

3. With Project Management being the most efficient way of implementing change, it can only be achieved by:
3. Using appropriate project management techniques and tools to plan monitor & maintain progress
4. With Project Management being the most efficient way of implementing change, it can only be achieved by:
4. Employing skilled persons e.g. Program Manager
Companies performing projects will generally subdivide their projects into phases or stages, collectively they are called:
Project Life Cycle
Other Special Project Management Techniques are: (WCREC)
1. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
2. Critical Path Method (CPM)
3. Resource Smoothing
4. Earned Value
5. Configuration Control
Complete the sentence: Project Management is the most ___ way of introducing ___
efficient, change
True/False: it has a Temporary Management Hierarchy that takes precedence over the company Hierarchy; and it sets out to deliver something: an IT system, a new product or whatever.
Four Characteristics of projects: (FPCT)
1 Finite time
2 People assigned
3 Clear Roles and Responsibilities
4 Things to Deliver
Complete the sentence:
At the beginning of a project we should be able to predict the __ __ __ (CED)
cost, end-date, deliverables
What helps make a Project Predictable? (C-SRPCR)
Clear Scope
clear Roles
clear Plans
clear Control Mechanisms
clear Reporting Structures
Process vs Project:
Projects (what do projects need) (TUC)
1. Take place outside the process world
2. Unique and Separate from Normal Organization
3. Continually Evolving
Process vs Project:
Process (OUT)
1. Ongoing, day-to-day activities
2. Use existing systems, properties, and
3. Typically repetitive
A project is a
temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service
Elements of Projects: (CLDC)
1. Complex, one-time processes
2. Limited by (BSR) Budget, Schedule, and
3. Developed to resolve a Clear Goal or Set of
4. Customer-focused
True/False: trying to do projects in inherently Process-Based environments can lead to a clash of cultures which can cause many problems, though the cause of these problems often goes unrecognized.
“The first __ of a project takes 10% of the time, the last __ takes the other 90%.”
90% , 10%
General Project Characteristics: (ABRP)
1. Ad-hoc endeavors with a Clear Life Cycle

2. Building Blocks in the Design and Execution of
Organizational Strategies

3. Responsible for the newest and most improved
products, services, and organizational processes

4. Provide a philosophy and strategy for the
management of change

Pure Process-Based company
the Company Hierarchy is primarily designed to manage those at the Bottom who actually do the work of running the business
pure project-Based Company
a Project Manager is appointed. He selects 2 sub-project managers, 6 engineers, 8 IT staff and 3 accountants and fits them all into a One-off Management Hierarchy for the project. At the end of the project they all return to their respective line managers and sit and wait for the next project to come along.
1. factors that cause problems in projects:
1. Undefined scope
2. Unclear objectives
3. Unclear roles and responsibilities
4. Vague requirements
5. Lack of leadership from sponsor
6. Lack of user involvement
Inadequate planning
2. factors that cause problems in projects:
7. Scope creep
8. Uncontrolled change
9. Inadequate monitoring and reporting
10. Team know it’s impossible but management
believe it will be done
11. Ignoring reality, wishful thinking
12. Inadequate communication
1 Distinctive Features of a Project: (8-SLBNU-PFT)
1 Start & Finish
2 Life Cycle
3 Budget
4 Non-Repetitive
5 Use of Resources
2 Distinctive Features of a Project: (8-SLBNU-PFTR)
6 (Project Manager)
Single Point of Responsibility
7 Fast Tracking
8 Team Roles &
Companies accomplishing their Business through Projects
Earlier on the Management-by-Projects approach is used by:
1. Engineering
2. Construction
3. Aerospace
4. Defence Companies
Later on the Management-by-Projects approach is used by:
1. Pharmaceutical
2. Medical
3. Telecommunications
4. Software Development
5. Systems Development
Later on the Management-by-Projects approach is used by:
6. Energy
7. Manufacturing
8. Educational
9. Service Organization
The Management-by-Projects encourages: (ODHG)
1. Organization Flexibility
2. Decentralized Management Responsibility
3. Holistic View of Problems
4. Goal-Oriented Problem Solution Processes
General Management:
The Project Manager must also be competent in a wide range of Skills in addition to the 9 knowledge areas
The Project Manager must also be competent in the following Skills:
1. Recruiting & Personnel
2. Economics
3. Computer Systems
4. Legal Contract
5. Human Resources
6. Sales & Marketing
7. Accounting & Salaries
Production Management Consists of- Henry Ford:
Groups of Repetitive Tasks- quickest way to mass production
If there are repetitive tasks, then setting up production line to carry them out would be:
More efficient and cost effective
Technical Management
On Smaller Projects the PM would be the technical expert
The overlap in skills are between:
1. Project Management skills
2. General Management Skills
3. Technical Management Skills
Project Management Environment:
Directly impacts the Project and how it should be managed.
Complete the sentence: Projects are influenced by a wide range of __ & __
Stakeholders, Issues
1. Project Stakeholders & Issues: (SCCMC-NRPCE)
1. Stakeholders (All interested Parties)
2. Client/ Sponsor’s Requirements
3. Company Organizations Structure
4. Market requirements
5. Competitors
2. Project Stakeholders & Issues: (SCAMC-NRPCE)
6. New Technology
7. Rules & Regulations (Health & Safety)
8. Politics (both internal & external)
9. Cultural, Social & Religious backgrounds
10. Economic Cycle
Complete the sentence:
For Project Managers to be __ they must have a thorough understanding of the __ __ which may well be changing and the goal post continually shifting
effective, project environment
Nine Knowledge areas under Project Management
1. Project Scope Management
2. Project Time Management
3. Project Cost Management
4. Project Quality Management
5. Project (HRM)
6. Project Communications Management
7. Project Risk Management
8. Project Procurement Management
9. Project Integration
Project Scope Management
The process required to ensure that the project includes all the work required & only the work required to complete the project successfully
Primarily concerned with:
Defining & Controlling what is or is not included in the project, to meet the client’s & stakeholders goals & objectives
Project Scope Management consists of:
1. Authorization
2. Scope Planning
3. Scope Definition
4. Scope Change Management
5. Scope Verification
Categories: Project Management