What are five attributes of construction projects that require project management techniques?
-unique assembly with specific parameters
– completed within a finite duration
– located geographically away from the company
– separate management of each project
– substantial subcontracting is used
What are the typical goals of a construction project?
to be profitable and successful. Meaning that the project is complete within the time frame, the quality is acceptable, the customer is pleased and there is no continued active liability
What are the 5 techniques used in project management?
– the organization of the management personnel on a project needs to be cost effective system in order to meet project requirements
– strong leadership is required
– unique problems arise on each problem
– planning and scheduling enables the project to complete on a finite day
– cost control involves containing construction costs within the budget
What are the responsibilities of the owner?
paying for work contracted to the architect and contractor, provides coordination of the project, site and anything the architect needs, necessary documents to the contractor for the project and may determine the scope of work
What are the responsibilities of the architect?
provides owner with the design of the project and the construction documents … as per owners needs
What are the responsibilities of the contractor?
providing the labor, material, equipment and expertise to complete the project … as per construction documents
What is an owners representative?
the owners daily representation during the construction project
What is contract administration?
a party in the traditional delivery systems that processes shop drawings, progress payments, requests for information, change orders and correspondence relating to the project … day to day contact
What is the contractors project manager?
organizes and manages the contractors project team and is responsible for implementing time and schedule control, cost control and quality control
What are the lines of communication for a subcontractor with a concern about the constructability of a system shown and described in the construction documents?
Subcontracts should not talk directly to the architect but should approach the contractors super intendant or project manager
What are the primary roles of the construction manager in Agency CM?
Responsible for the administration of the construction contracts during the construction phase, maintain a liaison with the architect for advice on intent of the document. They also process progress payments on contract completion
What is Agency CM?
involves the use of a manager, as the agent of the owner, without design or construction responsibilities
What is CM-at- Risk?
construction manager is involved in the conception and design of the project
What are the responsibilities of a design- build firm?
A single procurement source for an owner. Acts as the facilitator for designers and constructors in the design- build team to work together to achieve the owners objective
What type of delivery system is EPC?
engineering procurement construction is a form of design build. Provides engineering for the facility, procurement of all material and equipment and construction of the facility.
What are the items included in an advertisement/ invitation to bid?
– owner name and address
– architect or engineer name/ address/ contact
– bid date and time
– bid security required
– restriction on bidders
What type of information is found in the instructions to bidders?
– bidder representations or obligations
– bidding documents
– bidding procedures
– bid opening
– rejection of bids
– award of project to successful bidder
– requirements for post- bid information
– bonding requirements
– form of contract to be used
What is the purpose of the general conditions of the contract?
establish the relationship between the owner, its agents, and the contractor and define the relationships and responsibilities of the parties to maintain this relationship
What is the standard for of the general conditions of the contract used in building construction?
AIA Form A201
What is the purpose of the supplementary conditions?
Additional provisions or modifications tot he general conditions of the contract that are specific to the particular owner and project
What type of information is specified in Section 1, General Requirements?
Project facilities that are anticipated to complete the work. Items included relate to all the work phases, rather than individual activities or subcontractors … majority of items are direct overhead or general condition costs
What are the three parts of each technical specification section?
Part One – General: contains related work specified elsewhere, description of work, quality assurance and submittals
Part Two – Products: details the products intended for the project
Part Three – Execution: Can include information about suitable substrate, necessary prep work, quality of workmanship etc
What are addenda?
Bulletins of additional information that are germane to the contract documents issued during their completion and prior to the contract being awarded
What are the purposes of product data submittals, samples and shop drawings?
Utilized by the architect or engineer to verify that the correct products will be installed on the project
What are 5 types of information provided on a product data submittal?
– description of use and performance characteristics
– size and physical appearance
– finish characteristics
– specific request for jobsite dimensions
What are two purposes of the shop drawing, other than for A?E approval?
Shows more detail than construction documents and explains the fabrication of the items to the manufacturer’s production crew
When sample are required, what characteristics are usually examined by the architect?
colors, textures and finishes
What is a procurement schedule?
schedule of activities for a particular product from submittal through delivery to the jobsite
Why would a contractor prepare a procurement schedule?
allows the contractor to acquire data from the various parties concerning the durations and coordinate the receive of material
What information would be included in a procurement schedule?
– Amount of time necessary to produce the necessary submittal, shop drawing or sample
– Amount of time necessary to order the product after receipt of approved submittals
– Amount of time necessary for manufacturer and fabrication and delivery of the product to the jobsite
What additional information would be included in the procurement process?
– Vendor, supplier, fabricator, or subcontractor name and location
– Additional steps in the process, such as approval by consultants
– Actual dates achieved to be used for comparison with the scheduled dates
– Correlation with the construction schedule activities, by number and description
What are 5 uses of submittals during the construction process?
– Information for preparation of openings, support, adjoining assemblies and general construction details
– Quality control information to assure that the correct product has been supplied
– Placement diagrams for installation of the material
– Information relating to necessary handling and placement of equipment
– Jobsite reference for architect and owner
What are 6 keys to effective jobsite documentation and communication?
– Objectivity and truthfulness
– Appropriate distribution
– Standard, uniform information
– Completeness and comprehensiveness
What types of activities in the construction project need to be documented?
– contractual requirements
– meeting minutes
What is the purpose of maintaining daily reports?
Provide a snapshot of the day’s activities and conditions
What are some important items of information that need to be recorded in the daily reports?
– Project name and numbered
– Individual making the report
– Weather information
– Subcontractors on the jobsite
– Equipment on the jobsite
– Material deliveries to the jobsite
– Visitors to the jobsite
– Occurrences on the jobsite
– Signature and date
What are the purposes of weekly and monthly reports?
Keeps upper management aware of the project and enables them to assist when necessary
What is the purpose of a jobsite diary?
Personal records of converstations and occurrences that are kept by each management individual on the jobsite
Name several logs that could be kept of the jobsite
telephone log, visitors log, subcontractor log, and document control log
What are some types of information that should be recorded concerning jobsite photos?
– date and time it is taken
– location of the project
– subject matter
What are some instances where the use of video recordings are useful?
Any activity that involves motion within a relatively short duration
What are two primary purposes of jobsite cost documentation?
To transmit information to the company’s accounting system for disbursement of funds and to accumulate information to control the project costs
What are 5 basic elements of any correspondence?
– Reference the project name and number
– Description and location
– Objective of correspondence
What is an RFI?
A request for information typically asks for clarification regarding questions that may arise about documents, construction, materials etc
What are some items that would be included in project meeting minutes?
– Project designation
– Parties in attendance
– Minutes from the previous meeting
– Project progress
– Change orders
– Old business
– New business
– Meeting adjourned, next meeting date and time
What are some aspects of the jobsite layout plan?
– Jobsite layout allocation
– Jobsite access
– Material handling
– Worker transportation
– Temporary facilities
– Jobsite security
– Signage and barricades
What factors would you consider to increase productivity by efficient material handling?
– Always move material with the least expensive labour possible
– Deliver material as close as possible to the location of installation
– Deliver the material to its location with delivery people
– Deliver from the truck to the installation location if possible
– Avoid moving the material more than once
– Anticipate equipment needs for the entire project and ensure that the proper equipment is available
– Select the optimum equipment for moving the material
– Make arrangements for material or equipment to be placed in the installation location
– Storage of material on the jobsite should be systematic
What factors would you consider when determining the optimum equipment for moving material
– Capacity of the equipment
– Quantity of material
– Access to the point of use
– Provide adequate delivery routes
– Coordinate deliveries
What plans could you implement on a jobsite to reduce wasted time for a crew?
Jobsite layout plan
What are some factors that you would examine to determine the type of jobsite office?
– Space at the jobsite
– Existing buildings
– Modular office units
– Site- built jobsite offices
What are some temporary facilities that you will need to plan for the jobsite?
– Jobsite offices
– Dry shacks
– Tool storage
– Sanitary facilities
– Temporary utilities
What temporary factors would you concider necessary for construction access?
– Access roads
– Outside access to the site
– Access within the site
Site drainage and storm water control can be critical items in jobsite layout, how would you determine the necessary requirements?
SWPPP regulations outlined by the EPA
What are some useful references when laying out the jobsite?
– Construction documents
– Construction schedule
– Capacity charts and technical data concerning cranes, lifting and conveyance equipment
– Local codes for use of public roads, temporary vacation and safety provisions required to protect the public
– Safety standards for safety- related requirements, with temporary facilities and lifting
– Data on the size of the larger lifting loads that will be encountered
– Information from subcontractors on storage needs for their materials
– Budgets established by the estimate that determine maximum cost for the elements of the layout
– The paved surfaces, both existing and new
Why would an owners wish to have a partnering meeting and workshop on their project? Which party’s from the project team should attend?
It is a team- building process that starts with establishing trust between major project participants. The initial partnering workshop involves owner representatives, architect and engineers, construction managers, contractors and occasionally subcontractors
Name five different types of meetings and list the primary goal or objective for having each meeting.
– Contractors preconstruction planning and organization meeting: prior planning solves problems before the project starts, enabling the management team to concentrate on project start- up
– Preconstruction meeting with sub-contractors: discuss material problems, work sequence, access and subcontractor storage, and hoisting arrangements, submittals, payments and jobsite safety are also talked about
– Project preconstruction meeting: established the relationships that will continue to develop as the project is built
– Construction staff meetings: held for larger projects to coordinate different areas of work
– Project closeout meeting: provides opportunity to define closeout procedures and for the owner to further specify any additional items needed in the operation of the facility
Who should attend the project preconstruction meeting?
Owners representative, architect/ architects consultants, the contractors superintendent and project manager, major subcontractors and major equipment suppliers
Why does the construction industry use the process of negotiation?
Disagreements often arise about areas that are not completely covered in the contract documents and negotiation is necessary because the project is time sensitive
Are there any trends in contract language in the area of dispute resolution, and if so, what are they?
– Mediation is the process of bringing together disputing parties with the aid of a trained mediator to discuss the problems and find a middle ground or solution to which both parties can agree
– Arbitration provides an outside neutral party who not only hears the problem but will make a binding ruling
If your contract included AIA Document A201, what section determines when arbitration may be demanded and what is the time frame required by the clause?
According to the AAA Construction Industry Arbitration Rules, how many tracks are available? What are their names and what is the main determining factor as to which track is used?
There are 3 tracks available
– Fast rack involves claims of less than $50 000
– Regular track involves claims between $50 000 and $1 000 000
– Large, complex construction case track involves claims over $1 000 000
Meeting minutes are an effective way to record the content of meetings. What other major reason is there to have meeting minutes?
Provide a reference for dispute resolution
Many factor can affect labor productivity. List 10
– Lack of supervision or poor supervision
– Lack of coordination of subcontractors with work activities
– Improper or insufficient material available for tasks
– Poor jobsite layout
– Lack of proper tools for work activities
– Congested work areas
– Accidents and unsafe conditions on the jobsite
– Excessive moving of labor from project to project
– Inadequate heat or ventilation in the work area
– Uncontrolled starting time, quitting time, coffee breaks, and lunch breaks
Discuss the potential impact of changes to productivity.
Frequent changes produce confusion in crews, which reduces productivity
Describe the difference between a journeyman, an apprentice, and a helper.
A journeyman is someone who is educated and skilled in their trade, an apprentice is one who is in training under the supervision and mentoring of a person skilled in one’s trade and a helper is an unskilled person who has no training and in not enrolled in a training program for a specific trade.
What is a labor agreement and what type of contractor does it apply to?
A labor agreement exists between a contractor and a union when the contractor employs a labor union to supply personal to a job. It outlines the expectations of each party in regards to the labor, covering work, conditions and wage rates
Make a list of the typical items found in a labor agreement?
– Statement of purposes
– Parties and managements rights under the labor agreement
– Riles governing strikes, lockouts and slowdowns
– The agreements area of jurisdiction
– The issue of using only subcontractors that also are signatory
– Definition of paydays, holidays, workweek, workday, shifts, when overtime is defined
– Agreement on how grievances and jurisdictional disputes will be settled
– Employee substance abuse, safety, and accidental prevention issues
– Wage rates for different classifications of carpenters
– Hiring hall procedure, work rules
– Apprenticeship training and classification
What is the title of the position that is described as quite often the only person who can truly control costs, time and quality?
What is the title of the position that the authors describe as the only one who pushes the work? What is the definition of pushing the work?
The foreman… pushing the work is defined as evaluating the workman, making sure that one’s skills fit the work and that one aggressively completes the work at hand
A weekly labor cost report needs information from two different sources. What are the names of these sources?
Time card and weekly quantity report
What are cost codes and how are they used?
Cost codes are sections within the payment account that detail where things are being charged within the project. Cost codes are unique to the project they are developed for
What are the major issues concerning labor today and opposed to past decades?
misrepresentation of hours and time worked
Name the four factors that the field personnel should understand about each subcontractor.
– The nature of the subcontractors business
– The scheduling demands on the subcontractor
– The risks the subcontractor is facing on the project
– The equipment and safety concerns of the subcontractor
In the past, general contractors used subcontractors only to perform specialized tasks. What are the current- day general contractors doing differently in this area?
the current general contractor subcontracts much of the project work, providing primarily supervision for the construction project
Why are subcontractors used on construction projects?
– specialized labor for particular construction costs
– lower cost for subcontract work
– reduced risk for the contractor
Define the term purchasing and explain how it differs from subcontracting
purchasing is the activity of procuring material or equipment for the project. This differs from subcontracts in the fact that purchases do not contain jobsite labor, subcontracts do
What is the major risk the general contractor tries to avoid by subcontracting work?
Labor productivity being less than what was estimated for, increasing costs on the project
Define bid shopping and state the consequences to the subcontractor
The practice where contractors supply bid amounts from subcontractors to other subcontractors. Tends to decrease bid amounts to cost or below cost
What are the major keys to successful subcontract management, and why is it considered so important?
Each subcontract needs to be fully defined, then compared with the other subcontracts to ensure coverage of all items
Why would a contractor back charge a subcontractor?
a back charge is a deduction from the amount owed to the subcontractor, costs that have been incurred by the contractor that should have need the subcontractors responsibility
What is the major difference between a subcontract, a material contract and a purchase order?
A subcontract deals with labor, a material contract deals with the purchases of bulk materials, materials and equipment and a purchase order is a control document used to define items to be ordered, the payment terms and the quoted price
Define the word quality.
meeting or exceeding the customers expectations
List the standards of quality used in construction.
innovation, quality improvements and productivity improvement
List the elements that a construction quality management program might include
– Installations executed properly, one time only
– Teamwork, among project participants
– Commitment of all who are involved to accomplish the task as efficiently as possible
– Recognition of the quality of the project by the customer and potential customers, ultimately resulting in increased sales
What is total quality management and who is credited for its growth?
Process of bringing quality to the construction project, the construction employer is responsible for it
What are the 6 broad steps that define the process of continuous improvement?
– Make suggestions for areas of improvement
– Break down into parts and provide measurement tool
– Create solutions to the suggestions
– Implement and observe solutions at work
– Incorporate the solutions on a broad scale
Name the type of codes used by municipalities
Building codes and standard codes
What are the responsibilities of a building inspector?
– Trained personnel in the specific area of inspection
– Independent and do not enjoy any type of gain from their decisions
– Do not direct the contractor
– Must make decisions regarding conformance to specifications or codes
– Can accept or reject work
Name 5 areas that could require outside laboratory and inspection services.
– Verify admixtures used
– Check concrete slump
– Cast cylinders for strength tests
– Properly store and break cylinders
What are some considerations in preparing the project plan?
– Activities on the project
– Duration of the activities
– Sequencing of the activities
– Interrelationship of subcontract activities
– Equipment requirements for the project
– Utilization of subcontractors
– Field management personnel
– Crew size and project staffing of crafts people
– Anticipated material delivery dates
– Weather planning: anticipated lost days, weather protection
– Anticipation of delays
– Alternative solutions to sequencing
What are some considerations that are necessary to determining duration of activities?
– Relative to the amount of labor hours in the estimate
– Quantity of work accomplished
– Weather concerns
– Subcontractor involvement
What are some information items the contractor uses from the project schedule?
– Detailed relationship of activities
– Current status of activities
– Relationship of projected delivery dates of material and equipment
– Schedule of subcontract activities
– Duration of activities to schedule crews
– Interrelationship of activities
– Start and finish dates of activities
What schedule information should be sent to the subcontractors?
– Date required on site, duration allowed for work
– Relationship of other activities that directly affect the subcontractors work
– Current status of project
– Relationship of subcontract material and equipment to activity
What are three primary methods to use to get the project bask on schedule?
altering the sequence of activities, the duration of the activities or activity showing a problem and reevaluating the duration of the successor activities to gain time
What is the comparison made in cost control?
actual cost with the estimated cost
What are some of the reasons a cost control system is used for a construction firm?
provide the contractor with opportunity to adjust the factors involved on an activity in order to achieve a profit
What are the major considerations for a cost control system?
– Ensuring that the cost control accounts are of the proper scope
– Relating the crew assignment directly to the cost control activity
– Cost account results should be able to be used as historical cost data
– Field personnel should realize the purpose of cost control and report the costs accurately
– Comparison of actual and estimated cost should be done immediately
– A feedback system should be in place
– The crews need to be thanked when they accomplish the task under the estimated cost
– Crews need to be encouraged when costs are over the estimate
Name four waste management activities that can be determined during the design phase.
the efficient use of material and its waste, what the owner is intending to accomplish concerning waste management, scheduling of waste production and determining green alternatives
What is a typical outline for a waste management plan?
– Waste management goals and planning
– Communication and education plan
– Evaluation plan
– Specific topics
– Operations phase
What are the waste management inquiries that need to be asked during purchasing for the project?
– How is the material packaged?
– Is the packaging materials green?
– Can the packaging material be used in other ways?
– How is the material being shipped?
– Is there a plan or a buyback program for returning pallets and containers and/or excess material
What are the typical local and state requirements for material recycling and salvage?
Which materials can or cannot be put in landfills, which materials can be mulched, and which materials need to go to special disposal sites
Why is the contractor qualified to suggest ‘ green materials’ alternatives?
It is part of the contractors responsibility to evaluate and keep up to date on green materials that provide value on service life and other important costing ideas
What does SWPPP stand for?
Storm water pollution prevention program
What are the key elements of a construction air quality plan?
– Exclude pollution sources
– Choose nonpolluting materials
– Manage moisture and humidity
– Ventilate effectively
– Protect the material and equipment to be installed from fabrication, delivery and installation
– Document both by photo and written description
– Create a method to measure the effectiveness of the plan
What is building commissioning?
Commissioning attempts to create documentation that validates the original assumptions and green design aspects of the original design… provides the owner third- party certification
Name three major areas that are using computers to improve their functions.
Scheduling, estimating and cost accounting
What is one of the first steps needed to establish proper document flow?
Create a project organizational chart
What is a narrow definition of document control at the project level?
used to describe the control of submittals
List the documents that need to be managed.
Letters, shop drawings, samples, schedules, pay requests, transmittal, changes, contracts, purchase orders
What are the problems with all-in-one document control system?
The capability to store paper documents that are received from various project participants