project management fill in the blank

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Good ____________________ management is critical to providing stakeholder satisfaction.
project integration
____________________ involves identifying and managing the points of interaction between various elements of the project.
Interface management
Project initiation starts with identifying potential projects, using realistic methods to select which projects to work on, and then formalizing their initiation by issuing some sort of ____________________.
project charter
Many information systems are classified as “____________________” because they directly support key business strategies.
strategic
____________________ are chances to improve the organization.
Opportunities
A positive NPV means the return from a project exceeds the ____________________, the return available by investing the capital elsewhere.
cost of capital
Enterprise ______________________ include relevant government or industry standards, the organization’s infrastructure, and marketplace conditions.
environmental factors
_______________________ include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, guidelines, information systems, financial systems, management systems, lessons learned, and historical information that can be used to influence a project’s success.
Organizational process assets
A project manager usually organizes the project work into several work packages using a(n) _______________________
work breakdown structure
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 1058-1998 describes the contents of a(n) _______________________
Software Project Management Plan
Project managers should not hesitate to consult ____________________ on different topics, such as what methodology to follow, what programming language to use, what training approach to follow, and so on.
experts
Factors such as user involvement, clear business objectives, a minimized or clearly defined scope, and firm basic requirements, are elements of _______________________
project scope management
The main outputs of ____________________ are the project scope statement and updates to project documents.
scope definition
Creating the ______________________________ involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.
work breakdown structure
Key inputs for preparing the project scope statement include the ____________________, requirements documentation, and organizational process assets such as policies and procedures related to scope statements as well as project files and lessons learned from previous, similar projects.
project charter
A(n) ____________________ project scope statement is an important document for developing and confirming a common understanding of the project scope.
up-to-date
PMI uses the term “____________________” to describe each level of work in the WBS.
task
A(n) ____________________ is a task at the lowest level of the WBS.
work package
If ____________________ for developing a WBS exist, it is very important to follow them.
guidelines
____________________ is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas.
Mind mapping
A(n) ____________________ is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item.
WBS dictionary
____________________ is the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.
Scope creep
The main tool for performing scope verification is ____________________.
inspection
____________________ is the difference between planned and actual performance.
Variance
_______________________ involves estimating how many people, equipment, and materials a project team should use to perform project activities.
Estimating activity resources
The ____________________ is a tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule.
activity list
A(n) ____________________ is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities.
network diagram
In a network diagram, a(n) ____________________ is simply the starting and ending point of an activity.
node
204. To make milestones meaningful, some people use the ____________________ criteria to help define them.
SMART
A(n) ____________________ Gantt chart compares planned and actual project schedule information.
Tracking
The _______________________ is based on the fact that, like a chain with its weakest link, any complex system at any point in time often has only one aspect or constraint that limits its ability to achieve more of its goal.
Theory of Constraints
____________________ occurs when a resource works on more than one task at a time.
Multitasking
One of the first reality checks on scheduling that a project manager should make is to review the ____________________ usually included in the project charter.
draft schedule
Many project management software programs come with ____________________ or sample files.
templates
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines ____________________ as “the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.”
quality
Examples of common ____________________ include failure rates of products produced, availability of goods and services, and customer satisfaction ratings.
metrics
Performing ____________________ involves periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
quality assurance
Performing ____________________ involves monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality.
quality control
_______________________ is a quality planning technique that helps identify which variables have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process.
Design of experiments
Top management and ____________________ can have the greatest impact on the quality of projects by doing a good job of quality assurance.
project managers
____________________ often results in requested changes and validated defect repair, resulting from recommended defect repair or corrective or preventive actions.
Rework
____________________ diagrams trace complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations.
Cause-and-effect
Standard deviation and ____________________ are fundamental concepts for understanding quality control charts.
variability
____________________ measures how much variation exists in a distribution of data.
Standard deviation
Watts S. Humphrey defines a(n) ____________________ as anything that must be changed before delivery of the program.
software defect
____________________ are groups of non-supervisors and work leaders in a single company department who volunteer to conduct group studies on how to improve the effectiveness of work in their department.
Quality circles
Risk management can have a(n) ____________________ impact on selecting projects, determining the scope of projects, and developing realistic schedules and cost estimates.
positive
A project ____________________ is an uncertainty that can have a negative or positive effect on meeting project objectives.
risk
Given that all projects involve ____________________ that can have negative or positive outcomes, the question is how to decide which projects to pursue and how to identify and manage project risk throughout a project’s life cycle.
uncertainty
The idea of striving to balance risks and opportunities suggests that different organizations and people have different ____________________ for risk.
tolerances
____________________ is the amount of satisfaction or pleasure received from a potential payoff.
Risk utility
_________________________ are provisions held by the project sponsor or organization to reduce the risk of cost or schedule overruns to an acceptable level.
Contingency reserves
A(n) _______________________is a hierarchy of potential risk categories for a project.
risk breakdown structure
____________________ is a technique by which a group attempts to generate ideas or find a solution for a specific problem by amassing ideas spontaneously and without judgment.
Brainstorming
____________________ based on risks that have been encountered in previous projects provide a meaningful template for understanding risks in a current project.
Checklists
____________________ is a document that contains results of various risk management processes.
risk register
The ____________________ is the person who will own or take responsibility for the risk.
risk owner
Many professionals use ____________________ to help make several common business decisions, such as determining break-even points based on different assumptions.
sensitivity analysis
____________________ risks are risks that remain after all of the response strategies have been implemented.
Residual
Project teams sometimes use ____________________
unplanned responses to risk events—when they do not have contingency plans in place.
workarounds
Categories: Project Management