Project Management Professional
Adaptive Life Cycle
This is a project life cycle that anticipates many changes to the project scope and demands highly involved stakeholders. Also known as the agile project management methodology.
Balanced Matrix Structure
An organization where organizational resources are pooled into one project team, but the functional managers and the project managers share the project power
An organization that creates a blend of the functional, matrix and projectized structures
The person(s) who will pay for and use the project deliverables
A verifiable, measurable product or service created by a phase and/or project
an organization that is divided into functions, and each employee has one clear functional manager. Each department acts independently of the other departments. A project manager in this structure has little to no power and may be called a project coordinator
Persons who can positively or negatively affect a project’s ongoing activities and/or the project’s likelihood of success
The review of a phase to determine if it accomplished its requirements. A point in the project to determine if the project should continue
A stakeholder who does not want a project to succeed. He or she may try to get the project to fail
The organization whose employees or members are most directly involved in the project work
The logical division of a project based on the work or the deliverable to be completed within a stage
The review of a project segment to determine if it accomplished its requirements. It signals the end of one project segment and the beginning of another.
The review of a project segment to determine if it accomplished its requirements.
The review of a project segment to determine if it accomplished its requirements. Also known as a phase gate, phase exit, phase exit or kill point.
A stakeholder who wants a project to exist and succeed.
Predictive Life Cycle
Plan driven approach to project management where the tries to forecast the work that will happen in each phase of a project. The project plan, time, cost, and scope are defined early in the project and predict what is to happen in the project
Project Life Cycle
The collection of phases from the start of a project to its completion
Project Management Office
A business unit that centralizes the operations and procedures of all projects within the organization. This unit supports the project manager through software, templates and administrative support. It is most common in matrix and projectized structures.
Project Management System
The defined set of rules, policies and procedures that a project manager follows and utilizes to complete the project.
Anyone who has a vested interest in a project’s operation and/or its outcome
An organization that assigns a project team to one project for the duration of the project life cycle. The project manager has high to almost complete project power
Strong matrix structure
One project team. Functional managers have less power than the project manager.
Weak matrix structure
One project team. Functional managers have more power than the project manager.
Project Integration Management Processes
Develop Project Charter
Develop Project Management Plan
Direct and Manage Project Work
Perform Integrated Change Control
Close Project or Phase
Inputs for the project charter
Project Statement of Work
Enterprise enviornmental factors
Organizational process assets
Tools and techniques for Developing the Project Charter
Project Statement of Work
A narrative description of products, services or results to be delivered by a project.
References for the statement of work
Product Scope description
Inputs to Scope Management Plan
Project management plan
Enterprise environmental factors
Organizational process assets
Tools and techniques of defining the scope management plan
Expert Judgment -inputs from knowledgeable and experienced parties
Meetings -project teams or any stakeholder with responsibility
Scope Management Plan
Describes how the project will be defined, monitored, controlled and verified.
Components of the scope management plan
1. Process for preparing a detailed project scope statement
2. Process that enables the creation of the WBS from the detailed project scope statement
3. Process that establishes how the WBS will be maintained abd approved.
4. Process that specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained
5. Process to control how requests for changes to the detailed project scope statement will be processed.
Requirements management plan
Describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
Components of the requirement management plan
1. How requirement activities will be planned, tracked and reported
2. Configuration management activities such as how changes to the product will be initiated
3. The authorization levels required to approve changes
4. The requirements prioritization process
5. Product metrics
Traceability structure to reflect which requirement attributes will be captured on the traceability matrix
The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives
Categories of Requirements
1. Business: higher level needs of the organization
2. Stakeholder: needs of the group
3. Solutions requirements
A. Functional: describes the behavior of the product
B. Non-functional: environemental conditions or qualities required for the product to be effective
4. Transition: temporary capabilities, ex: data conversion
5. Quality: any condition or criteria needed to validate the successful completion of a project deliverable
Collect Requirements: Inputs
1. Scope management plan
2. Requirements management plan
3. Stakeholder management plan
4. Project charter
5. Stakeholder register
Collect Requirements: Tools and Techniques
1. Interviews=can be formal or informal
2. Focus Groups
3. Facilitated workshops
4. Group creativity techniques
5. Questionnaires and Surveys
9. Context Diagrams
10. Document analysis
Group creativity techniques
1. Brainstorming: generate and collet multiple ideas related to project and product requirements
2. Nominal group technique: brainstroming plus voting to rank the most useful ideas
3. Idea/mind mapping: ideas created through individual brainstorming are consolidated into a single map==reflects commonality and differences in understanding and generating new ideas
4. Affinity diagram: allow large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis
5. Multi-criteria decision analysis: utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approah for establishing criteria
Group Decision Making Techniques
1. Unanimity: everybody agrees on a single course of action
2. Majority: More than 50% of the members agreee on a course of action
3. Plurality: largets block in a group decides even if majority isn’t reached
4. Dictatorship: one individual makes the deciosn for the group
Project Integration Management
The processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.
Also includes the activies needed to manage project documents to ensure consistancy the with project management plan and product, service or capability delerables.
Develop Project Charter
Process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existance of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities
Key Benefit of develop the charter process
Well defined project start and project boundaries
Creation of a formal record of the project
Direct way for senior management to formally acctp and commit to the project
Functions of the project charter
1. Establishes a partnership between the performing and requesting organizations
2. Formally initiates the project
3. Used to establish internal agreements within an organization to assure proper delivery under the contract
4. Formally initiates the project
5. Provides the project manager with the authority to plan and execute the project
Project Charter not considered a…
Contract because there is no consideration or money promised or exchanged in its creation
Project Statement of work
Narrative description of products, services or results to be delivered by a project.
References for the SOW
1. Businees need
2. Product scope descritpion
3. Strategic Plan
Forces driving the need for a project. Examples: market demand, technological advance, legal requirement, government regulation, or environmental consideration
The organization’s strategic vision, goals and objectives. Contains a high-level mission statement.
Describes the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment
Project Management Plan
The process of defining, preparing and coordinating all of the subsidiary plans and interating them into a comprehensive plan
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Conditions not under the control of the project team that inluence, constrain or direct the project
The project manager and the group of individuals who act together in performing the work of the project to achieve its objectives
Measured in terms of completing the project within the constraints of scope, time, cost, quality, resoures and risk as approved between the project managers and senior management
A set of interrelated actions and activities performed to create a pre-specified product, service or result
Types of Phase to Phase relationships
1. Sequential relationship
2. Overlapping relationship
One project phase starts only when the previous phase is complete. Reduces uncertainty, but may eliminate options for reducint the overall schedule
A phase starts prior to completion of the previous one. May require additional resources, may increase risk if informaiton is not available from the previous phase
predictive life cycles
The project scope, time and cost are determined early in the project. Preferred when the project is well undertood.
Iterative and Incremental life cycles
Develop the project through a series of repeated cycles while increments successfully add to the functionality of the product.
Initiating Process group
Define a new project or new phase of a project by gaining authorization to start it
Planning Process Group
Establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action to obtain these objectives
Executing Process Group
Processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
Processes required to track, reiew and requlae the progress and performance of the project
Closing Process Group
Processes to finalize all activities acros all process groups to formally close the project or phase
Key benefit of planning process group
Delineate the strategy and tactics as well as the course of action or path to successfully complete the phase of the project.
Knowledge area definition
A complete set of concepts, terms, and activities that make up a professonal filed, project management field or area of expertise.
a set of conditions that is required to be met before deliverables are approved
a limiting factor that affects the execution of a project or process
a factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real or certain without proof or demonstrationg
Project Scope Management Processes
1. Plan scope management
2. Collect Requirements
3. Define Scope
4. Create WBS
5. Validate Scope
6. Control Scope
A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller and more manageable parts
Create WBS: Tools and Techniques
2. Expert Judgment