Biochemistry of Cells Test

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What is the most abundant organic compound on Earth?
Cellulose
Besides water, what other substance makes up most of the cell?
Carbon-based molecules (a.k.a Hydrocarbons)
Carbon has how many outer electrons?
Four
Because carbon has four outer electrons, it can form ___________ bonds by sharing these electrons.
covalent
Carbon and hydrogen make up compounds called ______________.
hydrocarbons
Sketch a simple hydrocarbon with the formula CH(4). SUBSCRIPT
H
l
H– C — H
l
H
Carbon skeletons may be:
1) ________________
2) ________________
3) ________________
1) Straight chains
2) Branch chains
3) Ring structures
Hydrocarbons in _____________ supply our bodies with energy.
Food (More specifically fats)
What determines the function of an organic molecule?
The 3-D shape
______________ _____________ give different properties to the organic ____________ to which they attach.
Functional groups; compound
Write the formula for Hydroxyl.
-OH
What is the compound for hydroxyl?
Alcohol
Hydroxyl groups typically end in what?
“-ol”
What is an example of a substance with hydroxyl in it?
Ethanol
Write the formula for carbonyl.
C=0
What is it called if C=O is at the end of a molecule?
An aldehyde
What is it called if C=O is in the middle of a molecule?
A ketone
What is this formula an example of and why?
H H
l l
H–C — C — C = O
l l l
H H H
Aldehyde; Because the C=O is at the end of the molecule.
What is this formula an example of an why?
H O H
l l l l
H – C — C — C
l l
H H
Ketone; Because the C=O is in the middle of the molecule.
What is the formula for a carboxyl group?
-COOH
(C double bonded to O and single bonded to -OH group.)
What is a compound with a -COOH group called?
An acid
Name two examples of acids.
Fatty acids and amino acids
What is this an example of?
H
l
H – C — C = O
l l
H OH
A carboxylic acid
What is the formula for an amino?
-NH₂
(N attached to 2 H)
What does -NH₂ act as?
A base
__________ picks up H+ from solution
Ammonia
What is the compound for an amino group?
Amines
Name three examples of organic compounds that hydroxyl is found in?
1) Sugars
2) Alcohols
3) Water-soluble vitamins
Name two examples of organic compounds that are found in aldehydes?
1) Some sugars, formaldehyde
2) Some sugars, urine
Large organic molecules are called ___________.
Polymers
Polymers are built from smaller subunits called ___________.
monomers
Biologists call polymers _________________.
macromolecules
Name 4 examples of polymers found in living things.
1) Proteins
2) Lipids
3) Carbohydrates
4) Nucleic Acids
What are monomers linked together called?
Polymers
What is the process of linking monomers together called?
Dehydration synthesis
What is another name for “dehydration synthesis”?
Condensation
Dehydration synthesis links monomers together by removing molecules of ___________.
Water
Name the process used to break down large polymers into smaller monomers.
Hydrolysis
What is the definition of hydrolysis?
Adding a molecule of water to break down large polymers into smaller monomers.
Hydrolysis involves ___________ a molecule of water in order to break bonds.
adding
Name some foods that contain a lot of carbohydrates.
Pasta, fruit, breads
________________ are simple sugars.
Monosaccharides
Simple sugars have this general formula:
(CH₂O)n
n is a subscript
What does “n” stand for in this formula?
How many carbons are in the molecule
Give an example of a simple sugar and name its formula?
Hexose
(CH₂O)₆ = C₆H₁₂O₆
Name 5 monosaccharides and give their chemical formula.
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose = C₆H₁₂O₆

Ribose and Deoxyribose = C₅H₁₀O₅

What are glucose, fructose, and galactose all known as?
Isomers
Some monosaccharides are called hexose sugars because they contain 6 ____________.
carbons
What is a simple sugar made by plants?
Glucose
What is known as “milk sugar”?
Galactose
What is the sugar found in fruits?
Fructose
What are isomers?
Substances with the same chemical formula, but different structures
Name two isomers.
Glucose and fructose
What does aqueous mean?
Watery; Dissolves in water
What happens to monosaccharides when they are put into aqueous solutions inside cells?
They go into ring structures
_________________ serve as fuel for cells.
Monosaccharides
Saccharide mean __________ ____________.
double sugar
What is a double sugar called?
Disaccharides
How are disaccharides formed?
Made by joining two monosaccharides
Name the BOND that joins monosaccharides.
a GLYCOSIDIC bond
What does a glycosidic bond involve?
Removing a water molecule
Name three disaccharides.
Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose
What is the common name for sucrose?
Table sugar
What is the common name for lactose?
Milk sugar
What is the common name for maltose?
Grain sugar
Name the simple sugars the make up the disaccharide, “sucrose.”
Glucose + fructose
Name the simple sugars that makes up maltose.
2 glucose molecules
Name the simple sugars that make up lactose.
Galactose + glucose
What are complex carbohydrates called?
Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are made of chains of ____________________.
monosaccharides
Name 4 examples of polysaccharides.
Starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
What is the shape of starch, glycogen, and cellulose?
Linear arrangements of glucose molecules
What is the shape of chitin?
Glucose with nitrogen
Plants store carbohydrate energy as _____________.
starch
Name some starchy foods.
Rice, potatoes, and grains
Animals store their carbohydrate energy as _____________.
glycogen
Where do animals generally store their energy?
In the liver
Both starch and glycogen are made of monomers of ______________ or glucose.
Monosaccharides
What does cellulose make up in plants?
Cell walls
What does cellulose serve as for animals?
Dietary fibers
How are cows able to digest cellulose?
Special bacteria in stomachs
Chitin is similar to what?
Cellulose
What is chitin partly derived from?
Non-sugars that contain nitrogen
Chitin is also found in the cell walls of __________.
fungi
Since sugars dissolve in water, they are said to be _______________.
Hydrophilic
What does hydrophilic mean?
Water-loving
Name a substance that is hydrophobic.
Lipids
What does hydrophobic mean?
“Water fearing;” Does not mix with water
What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrates?
2 hydrogens for every oxygen
How do lipids differ with carbohydrates in regards to Hydrogen to Oxygen ratios?
More hydrogens than oxygens
The building blocks of lipids are ___________ and _______________.
glycerol; fatty acids
Name four examples of lipids.
Fats, waxes, steroids, and phospholipids
What functional group makes sugar water soluble?
Hydroxyl; -OH group
What is the function of fats?
To store energy, to insulate the body, and cushion and protect organs.
What is the function of steroids?
To give rise to other hormones.
What is cholesterol?
A steroid
Where is cholesterol located?
In the cell membrane
What is the function of waxes?
To prevent dehydration
What is the function of phospholipids?
They form the cell membrane
If the bonds between carbons in a fatty acid are single bonds, the fatty acid is ______________.
saturated
If there is a double bond between carbons in a fatty acid, the fatty acid is _______________.
unsaturated
What kind of fatty acid is this and why?

H H H H
l l l l
O = C — C — C — C – H
l l l l
H H H H

Saturated because there are only single covalent bonds between carbons
What kind of fatty acid is this and why?

H H H H
l l l l
H – C — C — C = C – H
l l l l
H H H H

Unsaturated because it has a double covalent bond between carbons.
What is this?

R – C – OH
ll
O

The structure of a fatty acid
What functional group is in the fatty acid?
-COOH; Carboxyl
What does the “R” stand for?
A change in structure
Triglycerides are made of an alcohol called __________ and ____ _________ _________ chains.
glycerol; 3 fatty acid
What forms the backbone of the fat?
Glycerol
What is this molecule?

OH OH OH
l l l
H – C —- C —- C – H
l l l
H H H

Glycerol
Saturated fatty acids are _________ at room temperature.
solid
Name three saturated fatty acids?
Butter, margarine, and shortening
Where do saturated fatty acids come from?
Animals
Unsaturated fats in plants exist as __________ or _______ at room temperature.
liquids; oils
Name three examples of unsaturated fats?
Olive oil, vegetable oil, canola oil
What process links the 3 fatty acid chains to the glycerol in lipids?
Dehydration synthesis
What lipids are in cell membranes?
Phospholipids
Label this phospholipid.

( Polar Head )
l l
—- —-
l l l l
l l l l
l l
l l l l
—- —-

Polar head – contains phosphate
Two strips – Fatty acid tails
What kind of tails are these?
Non-polar tails
Phospholipid heads are ________ a.k.a ___________.
polar; hydrophilic
The two tails are ___________ a.k.a ____________ and repel water.
nonpolar; hydrophobic
___________ water-proof plants and animals
Waxes
What are waxes made up of?
One long fatty acid joined to a long alcohol chain.
__________ is the wax found on the surface of humans.
Keratin
What are steroids made of?
Four fused carbon rings
Name three steroids found in organisms.
1) Cholesterol
2) Estrogen
3) Testosterone
Proteins are polymers made of monomers called ________________.
amino acids
How many different amino acids are there?
20
How many do humans make?
12
Where are the other 8 found?
Foods
Give three jobs for proteins in cells.
a)
b)
c)
a) Build cells
b) Act as hormones and enzymes
c) Do the work of a cell
Name a type of steroid.
Anabolic steroids
Name another type of steroid.
Catabolic steroids
What four things are bonded to the central carbon of every amino acid?
1) Amino group – NH₂
2) Carboxyl group – COOH
3) Hydrogen – H
4) Side group – R
What types of substance is this?

H H O
l l ll
N —- C —- C – OH
l l
H R

Amino acid
Amino acids are linked together by ___________ ____________ and held together by __________ bonds.
dehydration synthesis; peptide
What do many proteins act as?
Enzymes
What are enzymes also known as?
Biological catalysts
Cells have ___________ of enzymes which may ___________ chemical bonds and __________ the amount of activation needed for the reaction to occur.
thousands; weaken; lower
Enzymes have what shape?
Globular shape
Where do substrates attach to an enzyme?
The active site
When a substrate attaches to the active site it changes its ___________. This is called __________ _______.
shape; induced fit
Can enzymes be reused?
YES
What is the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein?
Primary structure
__________ use primary structure.
Amino acids
Protein chains are called _____________.
polypeptides
Secondary structure occurs when proteins coil or fold into ___________ ___________ or __________.
pleated sheets; helixes
When polypeptides join together, the ______ groups interact with each other forming the ___________ structure of a protein.
R; tertiary
What shape do proteins take in the watery environment of a cell?
Globular shape
What is it called when chains of proteins attach to each other inside of a cell?
Quaternary structure
What is protein shape also known as?
Protein confirmation
All proteins have what kinds of structure?
Primary, secondary, and tertiary
Proteins only have quaternary structure if they are made up of _______ _________ _____ polypeptide strand.
more than 1
____________ found in red blood cells is an example of a protein have quaternary structure.
Hemoglobin
How many polypeptide chains does hemoglobin have?
4
Denaturing a protein involves changing its ___________, ____________, and/or _____________ structure so it no longer works.
secondary, tertiary, quaternary
Denatured proteins still have ___________ structure.
Primary
Name two things that denature proteins.
1) High temperatures
2) Changes in pH
What causes sickle cell anemia (disease)?
An amino acid chain that has a substitution in the 6th position.
What is the function of the protein hemoglobin in red blood cells?
To carry oxygen
What protein controls blood sugar levels?
Insulin
Insulin causes excess sugar to be stored in the _________ as ____________.
liver; glycogen
What are receptor proteins?
Proteins in the cell membrane that help cells recognize similar cells
What stores hereditary information for making all of the body’s _________?
Nucleic acid; PROTEINS
Name the two types of nucleic acid.
Deoxyribose and ribose
What are the monomers for nucleic acids?
Nucleotides
What is this: Base/
/
(Phosphate group) —- /
l / l
l/ l
Sugar
—-
Nucleotide (The base is a nitrogen base)
Name the 4 bases on DNA.
Adenine
Guanine
Thymine
Cytosine
Which two bases are purines?
Adenine and Guanine
What two bases are pyrimidines?
Thymine and Cytosine
What is the difference between purines and pyrimidines?
Purines have two fused rings, pyrimidines are single ring structure
What 2 things make up the sides of DNA?
2 Nucleotide chains
DNA is _____________ _________ and coiled to make a shape called the double __________.
double stranded; helix
_____________ is the sugar found in DNA.
Deoxyribose
In DNA, which two bases always match up?
Adenine and Thymine

Cytosine and Guanine

RNA has __________ sugar instead of deoxyribose sugar on DNA.
ribose
RNA is a __________ stranded molecule unlike double stranded DNA.
single
On RNA, the base __________ replaced thymine.
Uracil (U)
________ is the cell’s energy molecule.
ATP
What is this:

P-P-P Double fused rings

Monomer of ATP
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate
How is the nucleotide monomer for ATP different from the nucleotide monomer for nucleic acids.
3 phosphate groups instead of 1
Where is the energy stored in an ATP molecule?
Chemical bonds (last 2 phosphate groups)
Which bonds are considered HIGH ENERGY bonds in ATP?
Last 2 phosphate bond
When the last phosphate bond is broken, what is released?
Energy, ADP, and a phosphate
What is the energy of ATP used for?
Cellular work
Besides energy, what two other things are formed when the last phosphate of ATP is broken?
ADP and a phosphate
How can ATP be reformed?
Take ADP and put phosphate group on it.
Categories: Biochemistry