Biology Unit 1- Biochemistry

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What is biology
The study of living things
What is a monosaccaride
One sugar
What is the function of carbs
Store and release energy
Provide the least amount of energy but the easiest to break down
What 3 groups are carbs classified into?
Monosaccharides-one sugar(glucose, galactose, fructose
Disaccharide- Simple sugars(2 sugars- Table sugar, Maltose, Lactose
Polysaccharide- Complex carbs( many sugars- Starch, cellulose)
Another name for cellulose is?
Fiber
What is the function of lipids?
store and release energy
Provide the greatest amount of energy but are the hardest to break down.
What is a lipids monomer?
1 glycerol
3 fatty acids
What does the “R” represent in the fatty acids?
The “R” represents the different numbers of carbon/hydrogen chains.
Cholesterol, steroids, and some hormones are forms of lipids. What shape do they make?
Rings
How are lipids classified into groups?
Depending on how many double bonds are found in the fatty acids
What are saturated fats?
All single bonds, no doubles. Solid at room temp
What are monosaturated fats?
Fats have one double bond. Liquid at room temp
What are polyunsaturated fats?
Have more than one double bond
What are transfats?
Transfats are Poly and monosaturated fats in which the double bonds are converted to single bonds
What is the function of proteins?
-They provide structural support to living organisms
-Preform chemical reactions( enzymes)
-Defend the body against foreign substances
-Proteins are involved in almost all cell functions
-Provide energy over long periods of time
What is a proteins monomer?
Amino acids
what is the function of nucleic acids?
re and transmit hereditary or genetic information
Only some molecules such as ATP provide energy
What is a nucleic acids monomer?
A nucleotide- is made up of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous
What do enzymes do?
Help speed up chemical reaction in the body
What are the most common elements (SPONCH)?
Sulfur
Phosphorus
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Carbon
Hydrogen
What makes up an atom?
Subatomic particles
What are the 4 macromolecules?
Lipids
Carbs
Proteins
Nucleic acids
What is the substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction?
a cataylst
Living things…
-are made up of cells
-can reproduce
-Are based on a universal genetic code
-grow and develope
-obtain and use materials and energy
-respond to their envirorment
-change over time
Describe how dehydration and hydrolysis relate to organic molecules.
When the monomers of marcomolecules are combined in a chemical reaction such as two amino acids combining to form the marcomolecules, a watre molecule is released and a bond forms between the 2 monomers. This process is called dehydration. The opposite occurs when the marcomolecule is in the presence of water, the marcomolecule can break down into its monomers. This is hydrolysis.
What is the difference between anabolic and catabolic and an anabolic reaction.
In catabolic reactions the reactants are broken down into smaller parts. In anabolic reactions,
the reactants are built up into bigger molecules
How many types of amino acids are there?
20
Categories: Biochemistry