Chapter 3 Section 2: Biochemistry-Review
Compare the structure of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
A monosaccharide is a monomer of carbohydrates. 2 monosaccharides can combine to form a double sugar, or a disaccharide. A polysaccharide is a complex molecule composed of 3 or more monosaccharides.
How are proteins constructed from amino acids?
Amino acids link together to to form proteins.
How do amino acids differ from one another?
The main difference among the different amino acids is in their R groups.
Describe a model of enzyme action.
In the induced fit model of enzyme action, the enzyme then reduces the activation energy of the reaction so reactants can become products. The enzyme is unchanged and is available to be used again.
Why do phospholipids orient in a bilayer when in a watery environment, such as a cell?
Because phospholipids have a hydrophobic tail.
Describe how the three major types of lipids differ in structure from one another.
1) triglycerides: 3 molecules of fatty acid, 1 alcohol glycerol molecule
2)phospholipids: 2 fatty acid molecules, 1 alcohol glycerol molecule
3) waxes: long fatty acid chain and a long alcohol chain
What are the functions of the two types of nucleic acids?
DNA contains the information that determines the characteristics of its cell activities. RNA leads protein synthesis and transfers info from DNA.
Before a long race, runners often “carbo load.” This means that they eat substantial quantities of carbohydrates. How might this help their performance?
Carbohydrates are made up of simple sugars. When the runners run, they obtain more energy because the carbohydrates go through dehydration synthesis to convert from a monosaccharide to a polysaccharide.
High temperatures weaken bonds within a protein molecule. How might this explain the effects of using a hot curling iron or rollers in one’s hair?
Hair is made up of the protein keratin. When a curling iron or rollers is used on the hair, bonds are broken by the high temperatures. Then, they reform to form curlier hair.
You want to eat more unsaturated than saturated fats. Name examples of foods you would eat more of and less of.
Saturated fats include butter and fats in red meat. Unsaturated fats are found in plant seeds.