Freshman Biochemistry

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organic compounds
contain carbon
inorganic compounds
do not contain carbon
cohesion
water sticks to itself
adhesion
water sticks to other things
function of carbohydrates
energy
carbohydrates
polymers made of simple sugars
glucose
C6H12O6
glucose
primary source of energy
disaccharide
must be broken down before they can be absorbed by blood cells
sucrose
glucose + fructose
lactose
glucose + galactose
lactose intolerance
results when there is a shortage of the enzyme lactose
polysaccharide
large molecules formed by the joining of many monosaccharides together by dehydration synthesis
lipids
include: fats, steroids, and phospholipids
function of lipids
energy storage
part of cells
cushions organs
insulation
fatty acids
the building blocks of lipids are needed for normal physiological functions and are found in food
triglyceride
energy storage
phospholipid
lipid bilayer
cholesterol
cannot be dissolved in blood and must be transported by lipoproteins
LDL
bad cholesterol
HDL
good cholesterol
amino acids
build up proteins
joined by dehydration synthesis
peptide
forms between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another
aerobic
needs oxygen to take place
anaerobic
doesn’t need oxygen to take place
heterotroph hypothesis
refers to the possible answer to the nature of the first cell on the planet.
Categories: Biochemistry