Pre-Ap Biology Unit 2: Biochemistry

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What is a polar molecule?
A polar molecule is a molecule with both a positive and negative charge
Adhesion
Water molecules stick to other substances
Cohesion
Water molecules stick to each other
Surface tension
Property allowing liquid to resist external Force
Universal solvent
Water is capable of dissolving more substances than any other liquid
Density
Expands when frozen creates ice, ice layers, snow, ect
High specific heat
On a hot day water can be cold and on a cold day releases the cool
Acid Ions
H+
Basic Ions
OH-
When mixed, acids and bases…..
Neutralize
What is a buffer?
A buffer is a chemical or combination of chemicals in water that prevent pH changes because they have the ability to soak up excess OH- ions or H+ ions
Organic compounds
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
What are monosaccharides
The monomer of carbohydrates
Glycerol and fatty acids are monomers for which compound?
Lipids
Monomers for proteins
Long chains of ameno acids
Examples of lipids
Oil, butter, cheese, and cholesterol
What are the monomers for nucleic acids?
Nucleotide
Two nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
Made by joining amino acid subunits in long chains which provide a wide variety of functions in cells
Proteins
Made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and gives quick energy
Carbohydrates
Made from nucleotide subunits which store and carry genetic information
Nucleic acids
Fats, oils, taxes, and steroids made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms in long chains
Lipids
Carbohydrates function
Quick source of energy, bodily functions
Lipids
To store energy access structural component for cell membranes
Proteins function
Catalyst for metabolic reactions
Nucleic acids
Contains genetic information for every living thing
What type of organic compound is an enzyme
Proteins
Primary function of an enzyme
Enzymes work as Catalyst for the body, which speed up chemical reactions
Three factors that affect enzyme activity
Concentration of substrate, pH level, and temperature
Denature
when an enzyme becomes inactive
Examples on how enzymes are used
Saliva, stomach acid, and digesting food
Lipid test
Paper test, transparency
Protein test
Biuret test, turns blue
Starch test
Iodine, dark black/purple
Sugar test
Benedict test, rainbow colors (orange red yellow)
Two sides of a chemical reaction
Reactants and products
Substrate
The substance on which an enzyme acts
Things that affect the rate of an enzyme reaction
Concentration of substrate, PH, and temperature
Real life enzyme examples
Saliva, stomach acid
“Enzymes interact with specific substances”
True
“Enzymes change shape after a reaction occurs”
False
“Enzymes speed up reactions”
True
“One enzyme can be used for many different types of chemical reactions”
False
“Enzyme reactions can be slowed or halted using inhibitors”
True
Denatured
When an enzyme becomes inactive
Categories: Biochemistry