AP Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry
the process by which materials give off rays emitted by uranium atoms
the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive source
the nuclei of unstable isotopes
particle emitted by a radioactive source that contains two protons and two neutrons, and has a double positive charge
an electron resulting from the breaking apart of a neutron in an atom
a high-energy photon emitted by a radioisotope
an attractive force that acts between all nuclear particles that are extremely close together
band of stability
the location of stable nuclei on a neutron-proton plot
a particle with the mass of an electron but a positive charge
the time required for one-half of the nuclei of a radioisotope to decay to products
the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another element
all the elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers above 92 and Technetium (43) and Promethium (61)
the splitting of a nucleus in to smaller fragments
process that slows down neutrons so the reactor fuel (uranium) captures them to continue the chain reaction
process that decreases the number of slow-moving electrons
occurs when nuclei combine to form a nucleus of greater mass
radiation with enough energy to knock electrons off some atoms of the bombarded substance to produce ions
What is an alpha particle made of?
two protons and two neutrons forming a helium nuclei
What kind of rays have the most penetrating power?
Beta particles are…
What can shield gamma rays?
lead and concrete
unstable nuclei are…
What are gamma rays?
What can shield Alpha decay?
cloth or paper
Why is nuclear fusion not practiced?
extremely high temperatures are needed
the fastest moving electron:
has a positive charge:
has no mass or atomic number
changes both the mass
number and atomic number in radioactive decay, and is a helium nucleus
cannot be stopped by human skin or piece of paper
beta particles and gamma rays
emission increases the stability of the nucleus
alpha and beta particles
not deflected by any magnetic or electrical fields
when an electron gains an amount of energy, it moves from..?
ground to excited