AP Chm 19: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

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the emission of subatomic particles or high energy waves by some nuclei of some atoms
atoms which spontaneously emit subatomic particles or high energy waves
long-lived emission of light after the absorption of light
isotope which exhibits nuclear ability
alpha decay (α)
radioactive decay which emits an alpha particle, atomic number goes down by 2 and mass goes down by 4 amu
alpha particle (α)
radioactive particle consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons (charged Helium)
nuclear equation
an equation which represents a nuclear reaction using symbols to show the type of decay
ionizing power
the ability of radiation to ionize other molecules and ions, alpha particles have the highest ionizing power
penetrating power
the ability of radiation to go through material, alpha particles have the lowest penetrating power
beta decay (β)
when an unstable nucleus emits an electron
beta particle (β)
a neutron changes into a proton and emits an electron, atomic number goes up by 1 and atomic mass remains unchanged
gamma ray emission (γ)
nuclear emission, high energy can be emitted along with the particle decay
gamma ray (γ)
not a particle, high energy EMR
positron emission
antiparticle of the electron, a proton is converted to a neutron and emits a positron
electron capture
nucleus absorbs a particle if it is an electron then the proton absorbs the electron and becomes a neutron
strong force
force of nucleons to attract each other, must overcome the repulsive force of the protons to repel each other, nucleons occupy energy levels
protons and neutrons, N/Z (number of neutrons/number of protons)
magic numbers
incredibly stable nuclei with N/Z ratios close to 1 for small atoms, if N and Z are both even then it is more stable, If N or Z are 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 or N=126 then it is uniquely stable
film-badge dosimeter
badge made of photographic film in a case which is worn outside clothing to register radiation levels
Geiger-Muller counter
particles pass through an argon filled chamber which ionizes the argon and creates an electric current causing the Geiger counter to go off
scintillation counter
radioactive material passes through a material which emits UV or Visible light which is then detected and registered on a meter
radiometric dating
using the predictable decay of radioactive isotopes to determine the age of the matter which contains it
radiocarbon dating
based on C-14 isotope, half life = 5730 years
nuclear fission
bombarding a nucleus with a neutron to split the nucleus into two different elements
chain reaction
nuclear fission of atoms in matter which continues with the emission of neutrons splitting other nuclei and continues until no more splitting can occur
critical mass
the mass of radioactive material needed to make spontaneous fission continue
mass defect
the difference in mass of stable atoms which is mass of isotope – the sum of the masses of its nucleons.
nuclear binding energy
the energy corresponding to the mass defect
nuclear fusion
the combination of two light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus
transformation of one element into another. the alchemists wanted to transmute mercury into gold
linear accelerator
a single stage accelerator in which a charged particle (proton) is accelerated in a evacuated tube
alternating charged tubes which would accelerate the charged particle on its path
biological effectiveness factor (RBE)
the amount of energy multiplied to the type of radiation to determine the effective damage of that radiation
unit for the energy from radiation corrected with RBE. stands for roentgen equivalent man
radioactive nucleotide attached to compound or mixture which can be tracked as it flows through the body
positron emission tomography (PET)
uses positron nucleotides produced in cyclotrons to image using gamma rays – gives great detail for the glucose in the particular organ
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry