Biochemistry Chapter 9: Nuclear Chemistry

Published by admin on

Alpha (a) Particle
A high-energy particle that is emitted from a radioactive nucleus and contains two protons and two neutrons.
An SI unit used to measure radioactivity, abbreviated as Bq; 1 Bq = 1 disintegration/s.
Beta (B) Particle
A high-energy electron emitted from a radioactive nucleus.
Chain Reaction
The process by which each neutron produced during fission can go on to bombard three other nuclei to produce more nuclei and more neutrons.
Critical Mass
The amount of a radioactive element required to sustain a chain reaction.
A unit used to measure radioactivity and equal to 3.7 × 1010 disintegrations/s. A curie corresponds to the decay rate of one gram of the element radium.
Gamma (y) Ray
High-energy radiation released from a radioactive nucleus.
Geiger Counter
A small portable device used for measuring radioactivity.
A unit that measures absorbed radiation; abbreviated as Gy.
Half – Life
The time it takes for one-half of a sample to decay.
The lethal dose of radiation (or a poison) that kills 50% of a population.
Nuclear Fission
The splitting apart of a nucleus into lighter nuclei and neutrons.
Nuclear Reaction
A reaction that involves the subatomic particles of the nucleus.
A radioactive particle that has a negligible mass and a +1 charge.
The radiation absorbed dose; the amount of radiation absorbed by one gram of a substance.
Radioactive Decay
The process by which an unstable radioactive nucleus emits radiation, forming a nucleus of new composition.
Radioactive Isotope
An isotope that is unstable and spontaneously emits energy to form a more stable nucleus.
The energy emitted by a radioactive isotope.
Radiocarbon Dating
A method to date artifacts that is based on the ratio of the radioactive carbon-14 isotope to the stable carbon-12 isotope.
The radiation equivalent for man; the amount of radiation absorbed by a substance that also factors in its energy and potential to damage tissue.
A unit that measures absorbed radiation; abbreviated as Sv.
X – Ray
A unit that measures absorbed radiation; abbreviated as Sv.
Nuclear Fusion
The joining together of two nuclei to form a larger nucleus.
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry