Chapter 10: Nuclear Chemistry: Notes

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Who discovered radioactivity and in what year?
Henri Becquerel in 1896
radioactivity
the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy any atom containing an unstable nucleus is a RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE or RADIOISOTOPE
nuclear decay
when atoms of one element can change into atoms of a completely different element
nuclear radiation
the charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes
alpha decay
alpha decay
a positively charge particle made of two protons and two neutrons
beta decay
beta decay
an electron emitted from an unstable nucleus
gamma decay
gamma decay
-a ray of energy emitted from an unstable nucleus
-a gamma ray is just energy
background radiation
the radiation that occurs naturally in the environment
Geiger counters
use a gas filled tube to measure ionizing radiation
film badge
has photographic paper and radiation causes it to produce an image
Half-life
the time required for one-half of a sample of a radioisotope to decay (turn into a different element)
carbon-14
all living and formerly living things contain the radioisotope _______ which they get from taking in carbon from plants
5730 years
the half life of a caron-14
transmutation
changing atoms of one element into atoms of another element
Ernest Rutherford
performed the first transmutation
transuranium elements
elements with atomic numbers greater than 92
-first one made was neptunium-239
americium-241
-transuranium element
-used to make smoke detectors
plutonium
-transuranium element
-used for electrical energy generation in space probes
particle accelerator
the bombarding of particles are accelerated to very high speeds
quark
makes up protons and neutrons
nuclear force
-the attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus over very short distances,
-the strong nuclear force is much greater than the electrical forces among the protons
83 or more protons
all nuclei with _______ are radioactive
fission
the splitting of one nucleus into two or more
critical mass
the smallest possible mass of fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
uranium-235
nuclear power plants use controlled fission reactions of _________ to generate heat and electricity
fusion
the process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry