Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry Test

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Radioactivity
Is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy
Radioisotope
Any atom containing an unstable nucleus
What happens during nuclear decay?
Atoms of one element can change into atoms of a different element together
Nuclear radiation
charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes
What are three types of nuclear radiation?
alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays
Alpha particle
a positively charged particles made up of two protons and two neutrons
What is the subscript?
the atomic number
What is the superscript?
the mass number
Beta Particle
an electron emitted by an unstable nucleus
Gamma ray
a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus
Background radiation
How does nuclear radiation affect atoms?
can ionize the atoms
What devices can detect nuclear radiation?
Geiger counters and film badges
Geiger counters
uses gas filled tube to measure ionizing radiation
Half life
the time required for one half of a sample of a radioisotope to decay
How do nuclear decay rates differ from chemical reaction rates?
chemical reaction rates vary with the condition of a reaction, nuclear decay rates are constant
How do scientists determine the age of an object that contains carbon-14?
In radiocarbon dating, the age of an object is determined by comparing the objects carbon 14 levels with carbon -14 levels in the atmosphere
How do artificial transmutations occur?
bombarding atomic nuclei with high energy particles, such as protons, neutrons or alpha particles
Transmutation
is the conversion of atoms of one element to atoms of another.
Trans uranium elements
elements with atomic numbers greater than 92
How are trans uranium elements produced?
by the artificial transmutation of a lighter element.
Strong nuclear force
the attraction force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus
Under what conditions does the strong nuclear force overcome electric forces in the nucleus?
over very short distances, the strong nuclear force is much greater than the electric forces among protons.
What property of fission makes it so useful?
In nuclear fission, tremendous amounts of energy can be produced from very small amounts of mass.
Chain reaction
neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus trigger a series of nuclear fission
Fusion
a process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus.
Plasma
a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons
Fission
the action of dividing or splitting something into two or more parts
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry