Chapter 20 Nuclear Chemistry and Radioactivity

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atomic number
the number of protons in a nucleus
neutron number
the number of neutrons in a nucleus
mass number
the total number of protons and neutron in a nucleus
nuclear reactions
reactions that involve nuclei and that may change one element into another
radioactivity
a process by which the nucleus of an atom spontaneously changes itself by emitting particles or energy
radiation
the transmission of energy through space
intensity of radiation
the amount of energy that flows per unit area per time
inverse square law
a law that states that the intensity of radiation emitted from a point source decreases inversely over the square
alpha decay
the decay that occurs when a nucleus emits a helium nucleus
alpha radiation
the radiation associated with alpha decay
parent nuclide
the original nucleus involved in a nuclear reaction
daughter nuclide
the nucleus resulting from a nuclear reaction
beta decay
decay that occurs when an unstable nucleus releases an electron
beta radiation
the radiation resulting from beta decay
gamma decay
decay that occurs when a nucleus releases electromagnetic energy
positron
a particle that has the same mass as the electron and positive charge
positron emission
decay that occurs when a nucleus releases a positron
carbon-14
a radioactive isotope of carbon
half-life
the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay
rate of decay
the number of radioactive decays per unit time
rate constant
a number that describes how fast a radioactive nuclide decays
activity
the rate of decay of a radioactive sample
nuclear energy
the energy released during nuclear reactions
fission reaction
a reaction in which large nucleus is split into smaller nuclei
fission product
the smaller nuclei released when a large nucleus undergoes nuclear fission
chain reaction
described when the neutrons produced in one fission reaction cause more fission reactions to take place, releasing yet more neutrons
nuclear power plant
a reactor that creates electricity using a nuclear chain reaction
fusion reaction
a nuclear reaction where two small nuclei are fused under conditions of high temperature and pressure, creating a large nucleus and vast amounts of energy
dose
refers to the amount of radiation absorbed by the body
rad
a measure of the energy absorbed by tissue or other biological material
rem
unit of radiation dose that is weighted for its effect on body tissue
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry