Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry

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nucleon
nucleon
a collective name for neutrons and protons
nuclide
nuclide
a general term for a specific isotope of an element
mass defect
mass defect
The difference in mass between a nucleus and its separate nucleons.
nuclear binding energy
nuclear binding energy
the energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons
nuclear reaction
nuclear reaction
A reaction that involves a change in the nucleus of an atom
transmutation
transmutation
A change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons
radioactive decay
radioactive decay
unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha and beta particles.
alpha particle
alpha particle
A cluster of 2 protons and 2 neutrons emitted from a nucleus in one type of radioactivity
beta particle
beta particle
an electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
gamma ray
gamma ray
a very high energy form of electromagnetic radiation, emitted from the nucleus
decay series
succession of radioactive decay that ends when a stable isotope is produced
half-life
half-life
The time required for one half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation an decay products
nuclear fission
nuclear fission
The process by which a large nucleus is split into smaller nuclei
chain reaction
chain reaction
Series of fission reactions caused by the release of additional neutrons in every step
nuclear fusion
nuclear fusion
The process by which two or more small nuclei fuse to make a bigger nucleus
control rod
control rod
a cadmium rod used in a nuclear reactor to absorb neutrons from fission reactions
shielding
a radiation-absorbing material that is used to decrease radiation leakage from nuclear reactors
moderator
Slows down fast neutrons to increase the chance of more reactions. (So they don’t pass through the nuclei)
nuclear power plant
nuclear power plant
a type of nuclear technology involving the controlled use of nuclear fission to release energy for work including propulsion, heat and the generation of electricity.
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry