Chapter 22-Nuclear Chemistry

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Nuclide
a distinct kind of atom or nucleus characterized by a specific number of protons and neutrons
Mass Defect
difference between the mass of an isotope and its mass number
Nuclear Binding energy
is the energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component part which would be neutrons and protons
Band of Stability
band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number vs atomic number
Nucleons
a proton or neutron in the atomic number
Daughter nuclide
An isotope that is the product of the radioactive decay of a specific parent nuclide
Parent nuclide
The isotope whose radioactive decay product is a specific daughter nuclide.
Trans-uranium elements
are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92. All of these elements are unstable and decay radioactively into other elements.
Transmutation
is the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another through nuclear reactions.
Nuclear reaction
change in the identity or characteristics of an atomic nucleus that results when it is bombarded with an energetic particle, as in fission, fusion, or radioactive decay.
Alpha particle
helium nucleus emitted by some radioactive substances, originally regarded as a ray.
Beta Decay
radioactive decay in which an electron is emitted.
Electron capture
Electron capture is one process that unstable atoms can use to become more stable.
Positron
a subatomic particle with the same mass as an electron and a numerically equal but positive charge.
Nuclear radiation
the energy particles or rays that are given off from a radioactive element, such as uranium, as it decays.
Radioactive decay
The spontaneous transformation of an unstable atomic nucleus into a lighter one, in which radiation is released in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and other particles.
Decay series
s a series of decay in which radioactive element is decomposed in different elements until it produces one stable atom.
Half-life
The time required to convert one half of a reactant to product.
REM
Rem is a unit for measuring the amount of ionizing radiation that would be required to produce biological damage.
Roentgen
is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays.
Geiger-Muller counters
a device for measuring radioactivity by detecting and counting ionizing particles.
Chain reaction
a self-sustaining series of reactions. In a chain reaction
Control rods
are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
Critical mass
the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear fission
a nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus splits spontaneously or on impact with another particle, with the release of energy.
Nuclear fussion
is the combining of nuclei to form a bigger and heavier nucleus.
Nuclear power plant
facility for the production of electricity using nuclear energy.
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry