Chapter 22-Nuclear Chemistry
a distinct kind of atom or nucleus characterized by a specific number of protons and neutrons
difference between the mass of an isotope and its mass number
Nuclear Binding energy
is the energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component part which would be neutrons and protons
Band of Stability
band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number vs atomic number
a proton or neutron in the atomic number
An isotope that is the product of the radioactive decay of a specific parent nuclide
The isotope whose radioactive decay product is a specific daughter nuclide.
are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92. All of these elements are unstable and decay radioactively into other elements.
is the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another through nuclear reactions.
change in the identity or characteristics of an atomic nucleus that results when it is bombarded with an energetic particle, as in fission, fusion, or radioactive decay.
helium nucleus emitted by some radioactive substances, originally regarded as a ray.
radioactive decay in which an electron is emitted.
Electron capture is one process that unstable atoms can use to become more stable.
a subatomic particle with the same mass as an electron and a numerically equal but positive charge.
the energy particles or rays that are given off from a radioactive element, such as uranium, as it decays.
The spontaneous transformation of an unstable atomic nucleus into a lighter one, in which radiation is released in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and other particles.
s a series of decay in which radioactive element is decomposed in different elements until it produces one stable atom.
The time required to convert one half of a reactant to product.
Rem is a unit for measuring the amount of ionizing radiation that would be required to produce biological damage.
is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays.
a device for measuring radioactivity by detecting and counting ionizing particles.
a self-sustaining series of reactions. In a chain reaction
are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
a nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus splits spontaneously or on impact with another particle, with the release of energy.
is the combining of nuclei to form a bigger and heavier nucleus.
Nuclear power plant
facility for the production of electricity using nuclear energy.