Chapter 24 Notes Nuclear Chemistry
What reactions are different from other types of reaction?
Who stored photographic plates near Uranium salts in a dark drawer, discovered unseen rays and made the plates fog?
Antoine Henri Becquerel
Nuclear Chemistry is concerned with the structure of atomic ____________ and the changes they undergo
Isotopes of atoms with unstable nuclei are called?
What nuclei emits radiation to attain more stable atomic configurations in a process called radioactive decay?
The three most common types of radiation are?
Alpha, beta, and gamma rays
Alpha particles have the same composition as a helium nucleus-___________ protons and _____________ neutrons
2 protons, 2 neutrons
Because of the ____________, alpha particles have a 2+ charge
Alpha radiation is not very penetrating-a single sheet of ________
Particles are very fast moving _____________ emitted when a neutron is converted into a proton
Beta Particles have _____________ mass and a 1- charge
Beta radiation is a stream of fast moving particles with greater penetrating power- a thin sheet of _________ will stop them
What are rays are high energy electromagnetic radiation, not a particle
Gamma rays have no?
Mass or charge
Gamma rays almost always accompany what radiation?
Alpha and Beta
What is a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from certain materials in an excited state
The ability of radiation to pass through matter is called its?
Except for gamma radiation, radioactive decay involves what? Or the conversion of an element into another element
What acts on the subatomic particles that are extremely close together and overcomes the electrostatic repulsion among protons
The Strong Nuclear Force
As an atomic number increases, more and more ______________ are needed to produce a strong nuclear force that is sufficient to balance the electrostatic repulsion between protons
Neutron to proton ratio for smaller elements (< atomic # 20) is ____________ the size of the atom increase, the ratio of neutrons to protons increases gradually to about __________
The area on the within which all stable nuclei are found is known as the _______________
Band of Stability
Atoms can undergo different types of decay-beta decay, alpha decay, positron emission, or electron captures-to?
In beta decay, radio Isotopes above the band of stability have to many _______ to be stable
Beta decay decreases the number of neutrons in the nucleus by converting one to a _____________________________
Proton emitting a beta particle
Loss of a ____________(a high energy electron)
In alpha decay with more than ____ protons are radioactive and decay spontaneously
Both neutrons and protons must be __________
Emitting Alpha particles reduces both ________________________
Neutrons and Protons
Loss of an ____________________ ( a helium nucleus)
Nuclei with low neutron to proton ratios have two common decay processes. What is a radioactive decay process that involves the emission of a positron from a nucleus?
Loss of a _________________ (a particle that has the same mass as but opposite charge than an electron)
Occurs when the nucleus of an atom draws in a surrounding electron and combines with a proton to form a neutron
Addition of an ____________ from the electron cloud to a proton in the nucleus
Nuclear reactions are expressed by __________ nuclear equations
A series of nuclear reactions that begins with an unstable nucleus and results in the formation of a stable nucleus is called a ____________
Radioactive decay series
Radioactive decay rates are measured in _______________
What is the time required for one-half of a radioisotope to decay into its products?